Cell Structure & Function - PC\|MAC

Cell Structure & Function http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html Cell Theory All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.

All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division. Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell

Two Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Prokaryotic No membrane bound organelles No nucleus (the

DNA floats in the cytoplasm) Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html

Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Has DNA enclosed in a nucleus Most living organisms Ex: Plants Animals Protists and Fungi Plant http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html

Animal Typical Animal Cell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif Typical Plant Cell http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif

Cell Parts Organelles Structures in the cell with a specific function Surrounding the Cell #4 Cell Membrane

Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Separates cell from environment Gatekeeper http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

#5. Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells Non-living. Made of cellulose

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Inside the Cell #3. Nucleus with nuclear membrane Directs cell activities

Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material DNA The Control Center Nuclear Envelope or Nuclear Membrane Surrounds and protects nucleus

Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus Mini Gate Keeper http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html #11. DNA-Chromatin (relaxed)

or Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

#1. Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture that holds the organelles in the cell Surrounded by cell membrane Jello #10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html in cell Cavities connected to

nuclear envelope Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface Subway System #8. Ribosomes

Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ER & floating throughout the cell The Protein Factories http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

#2. Mitochondria Produces energy (ATP) through cellular respiration breaking down fats & carbohydrates (glucose) The Powerhouse http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

#7. Golgi Bodies or Golgi Apparatus Protein 'packaging plant' Packs proteins so they can be sent out of the cell Fed Ex or

Packers http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html #9. Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Digest proteins and

worn out parts of the cell Digestive System or Clean-up Crew Mainly in animal cells http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html #6. Vacuoles

Membrane-bound sacs for storing food, water, and waste Very large in plant cells. Smaller in animal cells Help plants maintain shape Storage tank

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html #12. Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green pigment chlorophyll that traps energy from the sun

Where photosynthesis takes place http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

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