Cancer - websites.rcc.edu

Cancer Learning objectives Cancer occurs when regulation of the cell cycle fails. Checkpoints in the cell cycle normally prevent cell reproduction, but if they fail, the cell could become cancerous. Cell cycle is controlled by oncogenes and tumor

suppressor genes. What are these and how do they work? Understand what normally controls cell division, and why that control fails. Cancer is a genetic disease, but not usually inherited. Risk factors : exposures to carcinogens How does treatment work? 1 out of every 2 men and 1 out of every 3 women will develop cancer during their lives

Changes in screening for prostate cancer Cell Cycle Interphase = Growing phase Mitotic Phase = Cell division

Cell Cycle Regulation Cell cycle is directed by a control system which is regulated at checkpoints by

internal and external signals G1 checkpoint is important in mammals - if no go-ahead signal, cell enters the G0 phase (and may stay there!)

Cell replication Failed cell-cycle checkpoints lead to repeated cell division Runaway cell division IS cancer Cell Cycle

Interphase = Growing phase No functional checkpoints Mitotic Phase = Cell division Cell continues to progress

through cell cycle, dividing repeatedly What causes cell cycle checkpoints to fail? Part I. DNA function DNA stores information about how to make proteins

Proteins do all the work to grow and maintain the cell What causes cell cycle checkpoints to fail? Part II. DNA Mutation

Protein that functions normally Protein that does not function normally This gene is the code for making the protein hemoglobin. A mutation in the DNA causes the cell to manufacture hemoglobin that doesnt work properly

What causes cell cycle checkpoints to fail? Part III. Oncogenes Proto-oncogenes Accelerator that helps cell progress through the cell cycle Mutations turn proto-oncogenes into oncogenes Oncogenes keep the accelerator pressed cell cycle continues rapidly

What causes cell cycle checkpoints to fail? Part IV. Tumor suppressor genes Tumor suppressor genes Act as brakes preventing cell progressing through the cell cycle When mutated, they lose

their function When mutated, cell progresses through cell cycle

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