BYU Deposition Facility

BYU Deposition Facility Previous Turbine Accelerated Deposition Facility (TADF) Cooling Air In Design Parameters to match: temp, velocity, angle, materials, particle size, chemistry, and concentration Cooling Air Out Coupon Holder Exit Flow Thermocouple Probes Equilibration Tube Flow Acceleration Cone Cone-mounted Thermocouple Natural Gas Injection (2 of 8 shown) Viewport Purge Air In Quartz Viewport Natural Gas In Particulate and Bypassed Air In

Honeycomb Flow Straightener Main Air In Particulate Feed Tube Inconel construction allows max jet temperature of 1200C Exit velocities up to 300m/s deposition by inertial impaction Target coupons supplied from industry Capability for impingement and film cooling Match net particle throughput 8000 hrs 0.1 ppmw 4 hrs 200 ppmw 1 BYU Coupon Holder Cooling Air Cap Coolant Entrance Radiation Shield Coupon w/cooling holes Thermocouple 25 mm diameter TBC-coated target coupon

Deposit-laden Deposit-laden combustor exhaust combustor exhaust gas @1200C at 1183C Deposit-laden combustor exhaust at 1183C Coupons generally held at 45 angle to flow 2 BYU Previous Testing Deposition vs. Temperature Deposition increases with gas exit temperature Insulated tests conducted up to 1150C (i.e., no cooling) No deposition below ~950C Deposition vs. Cooling 10 6 4 2 0 0.0

3 TBC Bare Metal 8 Capture Efficiency (%) Deposition decreases with increasing coupon cooling backside cooling film cooling on surface 1.0 2.0 3.0 Blowing Ratio (M) 4.0 3 5.0 Goal 1: Increase gas temperatures to 1400C Why? Mimic H class turbine gas temperatures Investigate mechanism changes at higher temperatures Gas temperature affects particle melting

Surface temperature affects deposit stickiness & tenacity Examine deposition threshold temperatures with realistic blowing ratios Existing experiments cool surface too much with M=2 Distinguish sweeping effect from surface cooling effect How? Build new shell Reaction Bonded SiC Price ~$4500 Modify coupon holder New design Insulate front face 4 Temperature Range 1500 Gas Temperature (C) 1400 New Range 1300 1200 1100 Previous range of experiments

1000 900 800 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 Surface Temperature (C) 5 BYU Facility Modification I.D. = 2.5 cm Redesign For 1400C Cone and Tube Reaction bonded SiC (previously Inconel) New Max Operating Temp = 1500C

No problems with thermal shock on startup and shutdown 1.2 m Clamping Ring SiC Cone Connection to base New Cone and Tube 6 BYU New Coupon Holder Redesign For 1400C Coupon Holder Insulating front plate made of SiO2 Redesigned front side to allow insulation to be flush with coupon SiO2 Face Plate Inconel Holder Test coupon Gas Flow Test Coupon Gas Flow

Tube exit Old Holder New Holder plus SiO2 faceplate 7 Deposits in Tube Deposits build up in the tube over successive runs Less ash impacts the coupon Affects capture efficiency Some tests were performed after large amounts of buildup occurred Deposits Data points considered outliers Solution: Routine cleaning of tube 8 Correcting for Ash Deposition in Tube Measured mass of deposit in SiC tube When accounting for the mass deposited in the tube, the capture efficiencies of the new facility match those of the old facility Capture Efficiency (%) Capture Efficency vs. Temperature

9 8 7 6 5 New Old Corrected 4 3 2 1 0 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 Temperature (degC) 9 Recent Results Time-Dependent Test Series

A test series investigating the time-dependent nature of deposit growth was performed Tests conducted for 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes Tg = 1250C Capture efficiency, surface roughness (Ra), and deposit thickness are measured and calculated with respect to time 10 Recent Results Flyash Characterization Two size distributions, with mass mean diameters of 13 m6 and 4 m 13 m 3 m % of Total 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 25 50 75 Particle Size (m) 100

Bulk density: 0.99 g/cm3 Apparent Density: 1.98 g/cm3 11 Recent Results Time-Dependent Deposition at 1250C 800 8 700 Ra (m) 600 500 Deposit Thickness (mm) 13 m 3 m 13 m fit 3 m fit 98% Conf 400 300 200 100 0 0

10 20 30 40 50 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 60 13 m 3 m 13 m fit 3 m fit 98% Conf 0 10 20 40

50 60 50 60 50 13 m 3 m 13 m fit 15 Tube Capture Effi ciency (%) Capture Effi ciency (%) 30 Time (min) Time (min) 10 5 0 20

Surface roughness and deposit thickness increase linearly with time Capture efficiency increases exponentially with time 3 m tests show much lower capture efficiency and roughness than 13 m tests 0 10 20 30 40 Time (min) 50 60 13 m 3 m 40 30 20 10 0 0

10 20 30 40 Time (min) 12 Recent Results Time-Dependent Deposition at 1250C Sticking Probability Particle sticking probability (Ps) as defined by Tafti1 Gives the probability that a particle of certain temperature will adhere to a surface upon impaction Ps (T p ) crit T p crit is the viscosity at the ash softening temperature and Tp is the viscosity at the ash particle temperature, calculated as2 3 10 B log

A Tp Tp A and B are dependent upon ash composition 1. Tafti, D., 2010, Syngas Particulate Deposition and Erosion at the Leading Edge of a Turbine Blade with Film Cooling: Presented at NETL University Turbine Systems Research Workshop. 2. Senior, C.L. and Srinivasachar, S., 1995, "Viscosity of Ash Particles in Combustion Systems for Prediction of Particle Sticking," Energy and Fuels, 9pp. 277-283. 13 Recent Results Time-Dependent Deposition at 1250C Sticking Probability The model was used to calculate the sticking probability of the particles in the hot gas stream The model was also applied to the ash particles already deposited on the surface of the coupon Sticking probability based upon surface ash temperature rather than impacting ash temperature 14 Surface Temperature Measurement Tg = 1250C Uncooled Coupon C 1227 1177 0 min 10 min

20 min 30 min 1127 1077 40 min 50 min 60 min 1027 Recent Results Time-Dependent Deposition at 1250C Sticking Probability Ps in stream: 0.185 Based on Tg = 1250C Ps on surface: shown in figures Based on measured 0.0020 0 10 20

30 40 50 60 70 Time (min) Tsurface 0.20 13 m 3 m 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.0005 0.0000 0.02 0.00 Maximum P s

Minimum P s 0.0010 0.03 0.01 13 m 3 m 0.0015 13 m 3 m 0.04 Average P s 0.05 0 20 40 Time (min) 60 0.00 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (min) 16 Recent Results Time-Dependent Deposition at 1250C Wyoming Powder River Basin Coal Flyash 1250C 17 Began Temperature-Dependent Tests

Investigate the influence of gas temperature (Tg) on deposition Vary Tg (1250C - 1400C) while using backside cooling to keep the initial surface temperature constant Only completed a few tests and low end of Tg range Using flyash samples from bituminous and subbituminous coals 18 Difference in Coal Ash (from temperature-dependent series) Tg = 1250C Ts,initial = 1071 C Subbituminous Bituminous 19 Conclusions Results from the new SiC facility compare well with results from the old Inconel facility Surface roughness and deposit thickness both increase linearly with time at a given gas temperature while capture efficiency increases nonlinearly The surface sticking probability increases with time, contributing to increase in capture efficiency 20 Conclusions Ash composition affects the manner in which ash deposits on the surface

Bituminous coal ash (higher melting point) deposits less evenly and depends more on a localized activation point Subbituminous coal ash (lower melting point) deposits fairly evenly 21 Future BYU Work Finish current temperature series (varying Tg, constant initial Ts) Second temperature series (constant Tg, varying surface temperature) Comparison of the first and second temperature series will show whether Tg or Ts has a greater impact on deposition Study effects of film cooling at Tg up to 1400C Study effects of increasing water vapor levels 22

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