Biomedical Computational Science PREF Outreach Program

Computational Biomedical Science PREF Outreach Program Dr. Suzanne Shontz Computer Science and Engineering July 8, 2011 Todays Agenda You will learn: about computational science and engineering and computational biomedical science

how computational tools can be used to improve treatment of two diseases: deep vein thrombosis and hydrocephalus other areas of engineering where they can be used. Introduction to Computational Biomedical Science Computational Science and Engineering

What is Computational Biomedical Science? Computational science and engineering: The application of mathematical and computational techniques to a phenomenon in science or engineering. Biomedical science: The application of the principles of the natural sciences to medicine. Computational biomedical science: The application of mathematical and computational techniques to medicine.

Deep Vein Thrombosis Famous People What do these famous people have in common? Serena Williams (US Tennis Star) Dick Cheney (US Vice President) David Bloom (US NBC Correspondent in Iraq) They all suffered from blood clots. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Formation of blood clot in deep vein (e.g., leg) The leg can become swollen, hot, red, warm, and painful. Complication: The clot can break free and travel into the lungs. How would this affect you?

Detecting a Pulmonary Embolism How do doctors treat blood clots? Two treatment options: 1. Medicine (blood thinners) 2. Insertion of medical device to trap the blood clots (IVC filters)

Greenfield Filter (Boston Scientific) IVC Filters There are many designs. Here are a few.

Celect filter Simon Nitinol Filter Optease Filter Cordis Corporation Gunther Tulip Filter G2 Express Filter Bard PV How can computational scientists help? Computational scientists can run simulations and advise vascular surgeons on: selection of the appropriate IVC filter placement of the IVC filter.

These are patient-specific choices to make. Why do you think the choice of IVC filter and its placement should depend upon the patient? Simulation Ingredients Patient medical data (CT scans) model of patient veins and blood clots Model of IVC filter (created via computer-aided design)

Equations for blood flow Simulate the blood flow in the vein with the IVC filter present IVC Filter Simulations The goal is to simulate (on the computer) the effect of placing a particular IVC filter in the vein of a given patient. Repeat the simulation with different IVC filters and different placements of the IVC filters.

Choose the IVC filter and placement that is best for the patient. Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus What is hydrocephalus? A build-up of excess cerebrospinal fluid in the head.

The ventricles in the brain enlarge. MRI Images of the Brain Which column of images are for the normal brain?

Which column of images are for the hydrocephalic brain? Treatment of Hydrocephalus Shunts: Remove excess fluid from the

brain and transport it to a re-adsorption site Ventriculostomy: Surgical cut made to create hole to drain fluid How can computational scientists help? Perform mathematical modeling of the brain and fluid growth.

Create computational models of the brain. Perform simulations to determine how to control the settings on the shunts for optimal treatment of hydrocephalus. Computational Tool: Mesh Generation Geometric Modeling via Mesh Generation

Geometric models must be created for the IVC filter blood flow simulation and for the hydrocephalus simulation. The models are created by the generation of meshes on the 3D objects. What is a Mesh? To simulate blood flow the vein with the IVC filter present, the vein and filter must be represented by a geometric model. This model is represented as a mesh.

A mesh is a collection of vertices and elements with certain properties. Examples of Meshes Zhang et al. ETLab at UAB

Dynamic Mesh Generation For applications which move (e.g., insertion of an IVC filter into a deforming vein, the growing hydrocephalic brain) the mesh must be updated in response to the deformations. This is necessary to keep the mesh a valid approximation of the geometry. Beating Heart Simulation

Canine ventricles (surface mesh) Canine ventricles (volume mesh) Joint work with Stephen Vavasis, University of Waterloo Some Non-Biomedical Meshing Applications St-Cyr, Jablonowski et al., MWR 2008) Summary

There are many opportunities for computational scientists to aid doctors. Mesh generation is an important tool for computational biomedical science. Its use extends far beyond computational biomedical science to other areas of engineering and science. IVC Filter Project Participants Current Participants:

Former Participants: Suzanne Shontz (PI, CSE) Shankar Prasad Sastry Jibum Kim

Keefe Manning (Co-PI, BioE)

Michael Navitsky Jason Nanna Matthew Scanlon Frank Lynch, M.D. (Co-PI, HMC) Brent Craven (Co-PI, ARL) Michael Singer (LLNL) Richard Medvitz (ARL) Evan Ford (ARL)

Bryan Kraweic (ARL) Thap Panitanarak (PSU) Joseph Pearson (PSU) Hydrocephalus Project Participants Participants: Suzanne Shontz (CSE) Corina Drapaca (ESM) Jeonghyung Park

Future collaborations are planned with: Steven Schiff (ESM) and Qian Wang (Mech Eng).

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