Bangladesh Climate-Resilient Ecosystem Curriculum (BACUM)

Bangladesh Climate-Resilient Ecosystem Curriculum (BACUM) Module 1: Introduction to Climate Change Module 1: Introduction to Climate Change SECTION III: REPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE - MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION 3.6. Effective Communications in Climate Change Introduction to Climate Change (ICC)

I. HOW AND WHY THE CLIMATE IS CHANGING 1.1. Introduction to Climate Science and Climate Change 1.2. Causes of Climate Change 1.3. Climate Intensification: Floods, Droughts and Cyclones II. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 2.1. Introduction to Climate Change Impacts 2.2. Sea Level Rise 2.3. Climate Change and Water Resources 2.4. Climate Change and Food Security 2.5. Climate Change and Human Health 2.6. Climate Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems

III. REPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE MITITAGATION AND ADAPTATION 3.1. Climate Change and Forest Management 3.2. Climate Change and Water Resources: Responses and Adaptation 3.3. Principles and Practice of Climate Vulnerability Assessment 3.4. Uncertainties in Climate Change 3.5. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services 3.6. Effective Communications in Climate Change Acknowledgements EXPERT CONTRIBUTORS Prof. (Dr.) Manzoor Rashid UNIVERSITIES Bangladesh Agricultural University University of Chittagong

Dhaka University Independent University, Bangladesh Khulna University Noakhali University of Science and Technology Shahjalal University of Science and Technology Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University North South University Prof. (Dr.) Md. Danesh Miah Prof. (Dr.) Md. Jakariya SPECIFIC INPUTS Curriculum Development for all topics

REDD+, Forest Carbon Community NR Management, Climate Change, Natural Resources Management CREL STAFF CREL STAFF John A Dorr Utpal Dutta Abu Mostafa Kamal Uddin

Ruhul Mohaiman Chowdhury Kevin T. Kamp Rahima Khatun Paul Thompson Sultana Razia Zummi Abdul Wahab Shams Uddin

Shahzia Mohsin Khan DESIGN, LAYOUT AND CONTENT DEVELOPMENT: Ms. Chi Pham, Curriculum Development Expert, Bangkok, Thailand Environmental Communication The importance and sense of urgency about many environmental problems has also invited interest in the field of environmental communication. Our understanding of the environment, our efforts to inform, educate or persuade people cant be separated from the need to communicate with others

Content Communication Climate change communication Challenges and opportunities of climate change communication Communication principles in climate change Learning Objectives At the end of this session, students will be able to: Explain communication process and components Analyze the challenges and opportunities in communicating climate change Describe six communication principles in climate change Apply effective communication when discussing climate change to

different types of audience with special attention to the disadvantaged (women, disable, old etc.) Communication Communication is the process of exchanging ideas and conveying information Language is the tool Listening is of communication Communication components Barrier Sender

Encode Message Channels Feedback Decode Receiver Can you guess what this means?

Exercise What is the biggest barrier in communication? What are the barriers in communication? Language is the one of the BIGGEST barriers! But, others are: Cultural differences: Value, believes, motivation Education differences: knowledge, skill, attitude Not suitable messages or channels for communication OTHER BARRIERS? A clear message?

I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant! (Quote from a U.S. government official) Unclear communication can lead to confusing interpretations and to emphasize the need for clarity when communicating Barriers to communication Physical Semantic Environment Barriers Barriers (Caused by)

Cultural Barriers Psychological Attitudinal Barriers (Caused by) (Caused by) (Caused by) Different Meanings of

Same Words Educational/ Perceptional Barriers Diversity of cultures Time, place, space, climate, noise, choice of medium Moods, Attitudes,

Relations (Caused by) Level of understanding/ comprehension Effective level model Level 3 Changing behavior Level 2 Affecting attitude

Level 1 Increasing awareness Adoption/Rejection Sequence Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption Adoption Curve by E. Roger

Climate Change Communication KEY MESSAGES AND INFORMATION STAND OUT 7 out of 10 nations at greatest risk to climate change and natural disasters are in Asia. An urgent need to build awareness of the devastating impact of climate change and mobilize a critical mass of people to support mitigation and adaptation efforts. 18 Climate Change Communication

is the process of transmission and sharing information on the causes and impacts of climate change; and response measures (both mitigation and adaptation) to climate change in order to . raise awareness influence attitude change behavior Effective communication in CC Why is it important to communicate effectively about

climate change? build core people to implement mitigation, adaptation & disaster risk reduction strategies influence national policies integrate traditional knowledge into scientific research engage other sectors Challenges of Climate Change Communication Confusion: Climate vs weather Overwhelming: too much & probabilistic information Risk: Decision makers can be risk-averse Denial/doubt/disbelief: climate change is not occurring Vested interests: Who benefits from doubt in climate change?

Doubt about biodiversity loss Number of species in nature are estimated fluctuate from 3,635,000 to 111,655,000 . but only 1,750,000 species are identified! WHAT DOES THAT MEAN??? Biodiversity conservation is a luxury product of developed countries that developing countries should not be concerned The groups against environmental protection Environmental protection and compliance with environmental protection regulations will reduce economic growth and increase

unemployment. They do not believe in human induced Climate Change For example: Ron Arnold's Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise Our goal is to destroy environmentalism once and for all! Opportunities of Climate change Communication Climate Change impacts everyone Knowledge can empowerment

New more effective types of communication and media available More people are concerned about climate change Past successes to learn from Future change is more certain Environmental Communication Communication Principles Know your audience Translate scientic data

into concrete experience Beware of the overuse of emotional appeals COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES Acknowledge scientic and climate uncertainties Connect to social identities and afliations

Make behavior change easier P 1. Know Your Audience Knowledge, Skills & Attitudes with Changes Values & Norms Motivation Satisfaction Behavior What do they think?

How will they behave? What drives them? P1. Know Your Audience: Why? Knowing your audience is important in designing messages and selecting modes/means of communication for an effective communication program It helps to reduce barriers and promote behavior change P1. Communication Modes

Time same same Place different Same Time Different Place different

Different Time Different Place Instant messaging Conference Calls Webinars / Video Meetings Literature, Email/Voice Mail, Web Apps, Web Courseware Same Time

Same Place Different Time Same Place Use them all Classes, Meetings, Workshops, Flip charts, Projected notes, White boards Bulletin Boards, WIKIS Shared Servers, O Drive

Local mailing lists P2. Translate Scientific Data into Concrete Experience Experiential vs. analytical: experimental processing is a stronger motivation for action Use vivid imagery: video, metaphors, storiesboth emotional and analytical appeals Avoid jargon, especially scientific terms and acronyms because people are confused by them P3. Beware of Overuse of Emotional Appeals

Finite pool of worry: People have limited capacity to worry Emotional numbing: Repeated exposure to emotionally draining situation Single action bias: Tendency of taking one action even if it is not the most effective P4. Acknowledge Scientific and Climate Uncertainties Be strategic about word use: Words with Different Meanings to Scientists and the General Public Scientific Words Non-Scientific Meaning

Better Words Enhance Uncertainty Risk Improve Not Knowing Low-probability event Intensify, Increase Range Probability

Error Wrong, incorrect Bias Unfair and deliberate distortion Uncertainty associated with measuring device or model Offset from the observed value P4. Acknowledge Scientific and Climate Uncertainties

Precautionary principle: We will never have 100% certainty/confidence But we can make predictions based on the best available data, quantifying uncertainties associated with those predictions. P4. Acknowledge Scientific and Climate Uncertainties Open dialogue: People may understand probabilistic information better when presented to a group Provide opportunity to discuss with a range of knowledge, skills and

personal experience to share diverse perspectives and work together to problem solve. P5. Connect to social identities and affiliations Promote participatory decision making process Allow ample time for discussion Discussions in small group P6. Make Behavior Change Easier Default effects: Human tendency to stick with the option that is selected automatically instead of choosing

an alternate option Take advantage of this to encourage people to change their behavior that will help mitigate effects of climate change P6. Make Behavior Change Easier Immediate incentive: People choose default option to receive something immediatelyBecause it requires no action, it is always easier. Giving people an immediate

incentive, if possible, makes behavior change easier TAKE HOME MESSAGES Climate change information must be actively communicated with appropriate language, made vivid through visual imagery and experiential scenarios, balanced with scientific information. Gaining public support for climate change policies and encouraging environmentally responsible behavior depends on a clear understanding of how people process information and make decisions. There is no one size fits all approach. Ensuring that people feel both a personal connection with climate change and a desire to take action to mitigate its impact is key. People need to know that there are solutions that they can be a part of.

Key Reference Resources USAID LEAFs Climate Change Curriculum. Module 1: Basic Climate Change. 2015. Winrock International. Columbia University Center for Research on Environmental Decisions: f BBC Climate Asia Data Portal: Twitter: Yale Forum on Climate Change and Media: @Yalemediaforum Facebook: #AsianClimateChange via ADB Video: The Challenges of Climate Change Communication, by 30onClimate: IIED Policy Brief: Why Media Matters in a Warming World - Guide for Policy Makers in the Global South: References and Resources The curriculum of USAIDs Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) in Bangladesh is a free resource of teaching materials for university professors, teachers and climate change training experts. Reproduction of CRELs curriculum materials for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder, provided the source is fully acknowledged. Suggested citation: USAID. 2016. Bangladesh Climate-Resilient Ecosystem Curriculum (BACUM). USAIDs Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) Project. Winrock International. Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Disclaimer: The CRELs curriculum is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents of the curriculum do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the US Government. USAID's Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) Project Winrock International House 13/B, Road 54, Gulshan 2, Dhaka 1212 Bangladesh Tel: +880-2-9848401

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