AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

Chapter 13 Globalization and Terrorism: Our Small World Frank Schmalleger PowerPoint presentation created by Ellen G. Cohn, Ph.D. Globalization Globalization A process of social homogenization by which the experiences of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, can foster a standardization of cultural expressions around the world Transnational organized crime: Unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups across national boundaries Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger

2 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Human Smuggling and Trafficking Human smuggling: Illegal immigration in which an agent is involved for payment to help a person cross a border clandestinely Trafficking in Persons (TIP): The exploitation of unwilling or unwitting people through force, coercion, threat, or deception Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 3

2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Human Trafficking: The Numbers Estimates suggest 800,000 900,000 victims trafficked globally each year 17,500 18,500 trafficked into the U.S. Human Trafficking Reporting System International Labor Organization (United Nations) Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger

4 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Comparative Criminology Comparative criminology The cross-national study of crime Comparative criminologists develop theories with increased specificity that can be applied across more than one culture or nation-state Globalization of knowledge The increase in understanding resulting from a sharing of information among cultures Plays a significant role in the process of

theory formation and the development of American crime control policies Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 5 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism: Culture centeredness Interferes with comparative criminology Comparing crime rates across nations is difficult

Definitional differences Diverse crime-reporting practices Political, social, economic influences on reporting of statistics Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 6 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Issues in Reporting Definitional differences create the biggest problem Crime data may not share conceptual similarities

Crime statistics reflect social and political contexts Some nations do not accurately report certain kinds of culturally reprehensible crimes The social norms may make it impossible for victims in some countries to report certain types of crime Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 7 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Terrorism Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated

against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience A tactic or method for attaining political goals Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 8 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Terrorism Terrorism usually is: Premeditated or planned Politically motivated Aimed at civilians Carried out by

subnational groups Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 9 Terrorism usually is not: Impulsive or an act of rage Perpetrated for criminal gain Aimed at military targets Perpetrated by an army 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Types of Terrorist Groups Nationalist terrorism

Left-wing terrorism Religious terrorism Right-wing terrorism State-sponsored terrorism Anarchist terrorism Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger

10 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Domestic Terrorism The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates entirely within the U.S. and its territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. government or population Oklahoma City bombing 1995 Timothy McVeigh Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 11

2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights International Terrorism The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who has a connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives In 2008, there were 11,770 terrorist attacks against noncombatants, resulting in over 54,000 deaths, injuries, and kidnappings Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 12

2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights The War on Terrorism Sept 11th attacks led to war on international terrorism Key legislative initiatives during first years of the G.W. Bush presidency: The USA PATRIOT Act (2001) Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) Homeland Security Act (2002) Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 13

2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights The USA PATRIOT Act Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act Designed to fight terrorism but also includes provisions that apply to other types of crime Some question whether the Act unfairly expands police powers at the expense of individual rights and civil liberties Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 14

2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Established by 2002 Homeland Security Act Act enacted to protect America against terrorism DHS coordinates activities of 22 domestic agencies Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 15 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights

Organizational Chart of DHS Fig 13-6: Organizational Chart of DHS Criminology: A Brief Introduction Frank J. Schmalleger 16 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights

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