Plant Stem Cell Therapy Seminars Regenerative Medicine ANY KIND AUDIO OR VIDEO RECORDING FROM THESE LECTURES IS PROHIBITED. FDA Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are for educational purposes only. Our products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness, disease or condition. AT THE COMPLETION OF ALL 5 DAYS YOU WILL BE GIVEN A CERTIFICATION IN PSC CONCENTRATED GEMMOTHERAPY COURSE APPROVED BY THE EUROPEAN HERBORISTE FEDERATION. Plant Stem Cell Therapy Seminars 9.00AM 1.00PM LUNCH BREAK 1.00PM 2.00PM 2.00PM 5.00PM
Mastering Plant Stem Cell Therapy REGENERATIVE MEDICINE with embryonic plant tissue Presented by Dr. Dominique Richard MD,ND Copyright 2007 Two Fundamental Statements 1. The necessity for a Precise and Correct Diagnosis 2. Mastering of the Therapeutic Tools Used Thus this seems normal of western medicine and too often not so of complementary medicine using alternatives which are understood or studied poorly! This seminar will not by pass the Science behind Plant Stem Cell Therapy. Responsible teachings!
The life of human beings, are at stakes cannot be taken lightly! A Custom Made Prescription that engage responsibility and accountability of its effectiveness. Original approach that demands scientific proof. The quality of products how are they manufactured and are they active or inconsistent in producing results. To not exclude but to consider everything Emergency Western Medicine usual drugs are indispensable and irreplaceable till the day we have our own injectables. Oncobiology in Cancer Treatments. Patients Choice Nothing is Harmless! Responsible well understood and prescribed PHYTOTHERAPY! From Phytoembryotherapy
To Gemmotherapy To Now Plant Stem Cell Therapy From Phytoembryotherapy To Gemmotherapy To Plant Stem Cell Therapy Middle Ages UNGENTUM POPULEUM, the buds of pine trees 1931-1954 1960 1980 1985 1972-2007 Dr NIEHANS "Live Cell Therapy" 1st Dr POL HENRY "Phytoembryotherapy" 2 nd Dr. MAX TETAU " Gemmotherapy " PHILIPPE ANDRIANNE (Concentrated Gemmotherapy) 3rd Dr. DOMINIQUE RICHARD Materia Medica Plant Stem Cell Therapy
Historic DEFINITION Phytoembryotherapy is a therapeutic base on the value of the potential biological energy of vegetables & minerals. Dr. Pol Henry Born October 22, 1918 Died October 7, 1988 EMBRYONIC PLANT TISSUE from Buds of Trees Young Shoots of Trees Or from the epithelium of
young embryonic barks of trees & rootlets Or Occasionally even germinating seeds as in Corn Rootlets Fresh Sap from the Birch Tree Types of Stem Cells 1.Human Stem Cells 2.Animal Stem Cells 3.Plant Stem Cells Picture: Beech Fagus Sylvatica Stem Cell What are Stem Cells?
Stem cells are primal, undifferentiated cells which have the unique potential to produce any kind of cell in the body. Medical researchers believe stem cells have the potential to change the face of human disease by being used to repair specific tissues (which Plant Stem Cell Therapy can do) or to grow organs (which Plant Stem Cell Therapy cannot do). Generally, stem cells are categorized according to their source, as either adult or embryonic. The type of stem cell most often discussed in the news is an embryonic stem cell. During fertilization, a sperm cell unites with an egg cell, and begins to reproduce by dividing into different cells. These cells begin to arrange themselves into an outer ring of cells that enclose an inner cell mass called a blastocyst. Researchers have collected these inner cells and discovered that they can be made to develop into many types of specialized cells in the body . Until recently it was thought that each of these cells could produce just one
particular type of cellthis is called differentiation. However in the past few years, evidence has been gathered of stem cells that can transform into several different forms. Bone marrow stem cells are known to be able to transform into liver, nerve, muscle and kidney cells. PICTURE OF PLANT STEM CELL Embryonic stem cell research is a less-developed field and is considered by many researchers to have greater potential as the basis of treatments. Embryonic stem cells are cultured cells obtained from the inner mass cells of a blastocyst. Research with embryonic stem cells is controversial because it requires destruction of embryos same like abortion, which to many people are human beings, meaning that destroying an embryo for any reason is morally unacceptable. There are three types of Stem Cells: 1. Totipotent stem cells are cells, which are capable of forming every type of body cell. Each totipotent cell could replicate and differentiate and become a human being. All cells within the early embryo are totipotent up until the 16cell stage or so. A single Totipotent stem cell can grow into an entire
organism and even produce extra-embryonic tissues. Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, or even extraembrionic tissues. For example, a plant cutting can be used to grow an entire plant. Human development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and creates a single totipotent cell. In the first hours after fertilization, this cell divides into identical totipotent cells. Approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these totipotent cells begin to specialize. Totipotent cells have total potential. They specialize into pluripotent cells that can give rise to most, but not all, of the tissues necessary for fetal development. 2. 3. Pluripotent stem cells cannot grow into a whole organism, but they are able to differentiate into cells derived from any of the three germ layers. In
cell biology, a pluripotent cell is one able to differentiate into many cell types. In the members of Kingdom Animalia, pluripotent stem cells which can develop into any of the three major tissue types: endoderm (interior gut lining), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood), and ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system). Pluripotent stem cells can eventually specialize in any bodily tissue, but they cannot themselves develop into a human being. Multipotent (also called unipotent) stem cells can only become some types of cells: e.g. blood cells, or bone cells. Although limited in number, but multipotent stem cells can give rise to several other cell types. An example of multipotent cells is hematopoietic cellsblood stem cells that can develop into several types of blood cells, but cannot develop into brain cells. At the end of the long chain of cell divisions that make up the embryo are terminally differentiated cellscells that are considered to be permanently committed to a specific function. Plant Stem Cell Therapy are Pluripotent and Multipotent Stem Cells and of course cannot be Totipotent Stem Cells. Plant Stem Cells have the added benefit of detoxification and nutritional supplementation. Which Human or Animal does not perform beyond regeneration.
Stem cells are unprogrammed cells in the human body that can be described as "shape shifters." These cells have the ability to change into other types of cells. Stem cells are at the center of a new field of science called regenerative medicine. Because stem cells can become bone, muscle, cartilage and other specialized types of cells, they have the potential to treat many diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes and cancer. Eventually, they may also be used to regenerate organs, reducing the need for organ transplants and related surgeries. "Stem cells are like little kids who, when they grow up, can enter a variety of professions," Dr. Marc Hedrick of the UCLA School of Medicine says. "A child might become a fireman, a doctor or a plumber, depending on the influences in their life -- or environment. In the same way, these stem cells can become many tissues by making certain changes in their environment."
Embryonic and fetal stem cells have the potential to morph into a greater variety of cells than adult stem cells do. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew: to divide and create two cells, each identical to the original. Understanding stem cell self-renewal is central to understanding how organisms are made and maintained, and may lead to insights that permit physicians to modulate tissue regeneration and repair in their patients Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew: to divide and create two cells, each identical to the original. Understanding stem cell self-renewal is central to understanding how organisms are made and maintained, and may lead to insights that permit physicians to modulate tissue regeneration and repair in their patients.
The recent discoveries of the DNA sequences of the whole human genome as well as the genomes of few plant species revealed quite extensive similarity in many genes between these two organisms. Plant Stem Cell Technical: Meristematic tissue found in the buds and growing tips of roots in plant. Flowering plants have the unique ability to produce new organs continuously, for hundreds of years in some species, from stem cell populations maintained at their actively growing tips. The shoot tip is called the shoot apical meristem, and it acts as a self-renewing source of undifferentiated, pluripotent stem cells whose descendents become incorporated into organ and tissue primordia and acquire different fates. Stem cell maintenance is an active process, requiring constant communication between different regions of the shoot apical meristem to coordinate loss of stem cells from the meristem through differentiation with their replacement through cell division.
The major function of the shoot apical meristem is to produce organs throughout plant development. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lies in the immediate neighborhood. A gene called WUSCHEL has a key influence on how many cells in the apical meristem actually stay stem cells. Meristems are a plants stem cell 1. Shoot apical meristems
2. Root meristems The hormone cytokinin itself instigates the meristematic stem cells to split However, until now, it was unclear how hormones and regulatory genes, such as WUSCHEL work together to maintain this fine balance at the tip of the shoot. Cytokinin can only have its full growth-promoting effect in tissue in which the WUSCHEL regulatory gene is active. "Meristematic regulation is a fabulous example of how the effects of free circulating hormones can be limited to a particular tissue."
Key words: stem cells, initials, root meristem, shoot apical meristem They are all ADAPTIVE to their Environment The similarity between plants and human cells allow plant cells to serve as efficient cost-effective bioreactors for production of modern therapeutic drugs and vaccines to fight human diseases. The Cell is one of the most basic units of life. There are millions of different types of cells. There are cells that are organisms onto themselves, such as microscopic amoeba and bacteria cells. And there are cells that only function when part of a larger organism, such as the cells that make up your body. The cell is the smallest unit of life in our bodies. In the body, there are brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, stomach
cells, and the list goes on. All cells have a 'skin', called the plasma membrane, protecting it from the outside environment. The cell membrane regulates the movement of water, nutrients and wastes into and out of the cell. Inside of the cell membrane are the working parts of the cell. At the center of the cell is the cell nucleus. The cell nucleus contains the cell's DNA, the genetic code that coordinates protein synthesis. In addition to the nucleus, there are many organelles (like organizers), inside of the cell - small structures that help carry out the day-to-day operations of the cell. One important cellular organelle is the ribosome. Today there are approximately 100,000 known species of trees that exist throughout the world, according to World Resources Institute. A recent report from the United Nations Environment Program World Monitoring Center confirms that over 8,000 species are threatened with extinction and 976 of those are in a critical state. Trees are vitally important to world health on all levels. Globally, forests are essential to the health of ecosystems and their functions, biodiversity and economics. Some of the many key functions of forests include climate regulation,
the cycling and distribution of nutrients, and the provision of raw materials and resources. Trees cleanse the air and provide oxygen, help soil retain water, shield animals and other plants from the sun and other elements, and provide habitat for animals and plants. They help regulate the climate, cycle and distribute nutrients and provide raw materials and other resources. And don't forget the awesome beauty they give us throughout each year! Just one-fifth of the world's original forest cover remains in large, contiguous areas of relatively undisturbed forest. These forests are called Frontier Forests, the largest of which exists in Russia. The fact is, forests are being cut down and not replaced at a high rate in developing countries where their human populations are growing and their healthy development requires more use of land for agriculture, housing and roads, according to World Resources Institute's Ms. Mathews. Today, there are only three great forests left on Earth: the Amazon Forest of Brazil, and the boreal forests in Russia and Canada.
Forests provide a staggering range of products, with some 15,000 species of wild plants and animals are used for foods, medicines and other functions. All of Earth's oxygen is produced by photosynthesis, the process plants use to combine water and carbon dioxide to create glucose (their own food) and oxygen. Just three trees planted around the average size home can lower airconditioning bills by up to 50%, and trees that shield homes against the wind can lower heating bills by up to 30%. Trees produce natural anti-freeze chemicals which can keep them from freezing in temperatures up to -40 degrees Fahrenheit in some species. Technically, deforestation only occurs when land once covered with trees is totally converted to other use and is not replanted. An average tree absorbs ten pounds of pollutants from the air each year, including four pounds of ozone and three pounds of particulates. "Particulate" is a general name given to a tiny solid or liquid particle or piece of matter. It usually refers to particles in the air (airborne particulates). Our lungs are essential for breathing and for getting oxygen into the bloodstream and the cells of our body. During a normal day, we breathe nearly 25,000 times, and inhale more than 10,000 liters of air. The air we
inhale is mostly oxygen and nitrogen, but it also includes floating bacteria, viruses, tobacco smoke, car exhaust, and other air pollutants. Where do particulates come from? XENOBIOTICS There are many sources for particulates in the air. Among them are soil, plants, fires, and road dust. A major man-made type is fumes from combustion processes and products, like second hand tobacco smoke 0.5 gram per day we breathe, 2lbs per day of car exhaust we breathe, power plants, wood stoves, oil burners or other heating systems. Even burning candles or oil in lanterns can be sources of particulates. Toxic cleaning products we breathe. A second major type is dust. This includes dust from mechanical processes like grinding or sweeping, and common household dust that may include
mold, pollen, and small insect parts. Fibrous building material such as fiberglass may also be a source of particulates. A third major type is mist, like that caused by spray painting. In general, the smaller and lighter a particulate is, the longer it will stay in the air. A fairly dense particulate, such as lead dust, is likely to stay in the air for a shorter period of time than other particulates. Some particulates, like certain types of fibers or pollen, may stay in the air for very long periods of time, especially if there is air movement caused by occupants, pets, open windows, fans, office equipment, vacuum cleaners, etc. Go to Toxicology At equal weight, buds are more concentrated in active phytochemicals, contain all of the active ingredients that are located in different parts of the adult plant and their variety is wider than in the adult plant. Pharmacological studies comparing the action of buds extracts and usual tinctures on target organs and tissues have clearly demonstrated an increased activity for bud extracts. Myth till, now that its action is very much potentiated by the
concomitant use of Oligotherapy or Lithotherapy. Concentrated Gemmotherapy already contains Oligo-elements and Chelation Agents as in Lithotherapy. PSC Concentrated Gemmotherapy is a complete therapy by itself. You can treat almost EVERYTHING solely with PSC Concentrated Gemmotherapy! PLANT STEM CELL THERAPY = GLOBAL PHYTOTHERAPY THE BUDS ARE TRULY A CONCENTRATE OF VITAL ENERGIES AND INFORMATIONS. IT CONTAINS POTENTIALLY ALL THE PROPERTIES OF THE MATURE TREE. Why Embryonic Versus Adult Plant Stem Cell Embryonic plants contain all of the genetic information of the
future plant. They also contain all of the active phytochemicals of various parts of the plant. Higher concentration of active phytochemicals at a 1/10 of normal dose for formulation. Achieve greater results. Adult plants have lost most of the genetic information of the embryonic stage. The low level concentration of plant phytochemicals constituents differ from harvest to harvest. Requires more raw material with inconsistent results. Why Embryonic Versus Adult Plant Stem Cell Intense phase of multiplication;
full of energy. Embryonic tissue collection never removes the entire plant from the ground, thus it is ecologic friendly. Non toxic. Less energy The donor plant could be endangered and one might not be allowed to harvest. Many adult plants contain toxic metabolites, such as lead, arsenicThe elements found in adult plants may reflect soil pollution, or soil type in which the plants grow up, or air pollution. Effects of Plant Stem Cell on Human
1. 2. 3. Detoxifies the cells and tissues in great dept Reduces ROS reactive oxygen species Regulates Apoptosis; programmed death cells. Apoptosis is the most common mechanism by which the body eliminates damaged or unneeded cells 4. Promotes regenerative cell renewal, epithelial regenerator, cicatrize 5. Increases Collagen and Elastin 6. Promotes Anti-Wrinkles 7. Stimulates DNA repair mechanisms to repair cells. 8. By removing body burden toxins regain organ function 9. Regulates sebum 10. Promotes skin's pH factor to help maintain a proper balance of the "acid mantle" What are phytochemicals? Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease
preventive properties. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. It is well known that plant produces these chemicals to protect itself but recent research demonstrates that they can protect humans against diseases. Some of the well-known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, isoflavones in soy and flavanoids in fruits. They are not essential nutrients and are not required by the human body for sustaining life. Medicinal Plant Chemistry? The Importance of Phytochemistry Chemical terms are found everywhere from supplement labels to news items in the popular press to reference works for clinical practitioners. But what is the significance of these chemicals, how are they related, and how do they contribute to the observed actions of the herbs? For the herbalist, understanding plant constituents becomes Increasingly important as information continues to accumulate from scientific studies. Knowledge of structures and relationships helps us understand how botanical medicines function in the human body. Phytochemistry also teaches us how to prepare herbal medicines to get the optimal concentrations of known active constituents, and how best to preserve their activities.
How do phytochemicals work? There are many phytochemicals and each works differently. Here are some possible actions: Antioxidant - Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity: allyl sulfides (onions, leeks, garlic), carotenoids (fruits, carrots), flavonoids (fruits, vegetables), polyphenols (tea, grapes). Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. An imbalance between antioxidants and reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress, leading to cellular damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). Flavonoids may help provide protection against these diseases by contributing, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. Epidemiological studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely related to mortality from coronary heart disease and to the incidence of heart attacks. Stimulation of enzymes - Indoles, which are found in Auxins stimulate enzymes that make the estrogen less effective and could reduce the risk for breast cancer. Other phytochemicals, which interfere with enzymes, are protease inhibitors (soy and beans), terpenes (citrus fruits and cherries). Interference with DNA replication - Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of cell
DNA, thereby preventing the multiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens. How do phytochemicals work? Anti-bacterial effect - The phytochemical allicin from garlic has anti-bacterial properties. Physical action - Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell walls thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls. Proanthocyanidins are responsible for the antiadhesion properties of cranberry. Consumption of cranberries will reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and will improve dental health. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines Isolated Phytochemicals Allylic sulfides subclasses of the thiols, these phytochemicals have antibacterial, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. They also provide immune and cardiovascular protection. Garlic and onions are the most potent members of this thiol subclass, which also includes leeks, shallots and chives. The allylic sulfides in these plants are released when the plants are cut or smashed. Once oxygen reaches the plants' cells, various bio-transformation products are formed. Each of these appears to have tissue specificity. As a group, allylic sulfides appear to
possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties as well as immune and cardiovascular protection. They also appear to offer anti-growth activity for tumors, fungi, parasites, cholesterol and platelet/leukocyte adhesion factors. Garlic and onions, like their cruciferous relatives, can also activate liver detoxification enzyme systems. Specific allylic sulfides block the activity of toxins produced by bacteria and viruses. Anthocyanidins The anthocyanidins are one of the groups of flavonoids. They connect and strengthen collagen strands; thus, their action is on the soft tissues, tendons, ligaments, and bone matrix. this select group of flavonoids deserves special attention. Technically known as "flavonols," they provide crosslinks or "bridges" that connect and strengthen the intertwined strands of collagen protein. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body, making up soft tissues, tendons, ligaments and bone matrix. Its great tensile strength depends on preservation of its crosslinks. Anthocyanidins, being water soluble, also scavenge free radicals they encounter in tissue fluids. This is a powerful ability especially beneficial for athletes and others who exercise, because heavy exercise generates large amounts of free radicals.
Phytochemicals Astaxanthin a naturally occurring carotenoid pigment, is a powerful biological antioxidant. Astaxanthin exhibits strong free radical scavenging activity and protects against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage of LDL-cholesterol, cell membranes, cells, and tissues. Research has also shown that natural astaxanthin has up to 550 times the antioxidant activity of vitamin E and 10 times the antioxidant activity of beta-carotene. Astaxanthin seems to improve the immune system by increasing the number of antibody producing cells. Astaxanthin enhances antibody production by exerting actions on T-cells and T-helper cells. Astaxanthin is used to treat neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease. Astaxanthin protects the eyes and skin from sun radiation damage by quenching singlet and triplet oxygen. Studies with rats show that astaxanthin reduces retinal injury. Astaxanthin may inhibit 5-alpha reductase and thus could be useful in prostate health. Phytochemicals
Astaxanthin (continued) Supports Healthy Immune Function Supports Joint Health Supports Healthy Tendons and Ligaments Supports Skin Structure during Sun Exposure Supports Healthy Skin
Supports Anti-Aging through Cellular Health Supports Skin During Sun Exposure during UV Light Exposure 4mg PO per day Prevents Oxidative Damage Increased Energy Levels Helps the body in the recovery from Exercise Supports Normal C-Reactive Protein Levels Supports a Healthy Cardiovascular System Supports the Health of the Eyes Crosses the Blood Brain Barrier Phytochemicals Astaxanthin (continued) Is considered by some as the, 'King of the Carotenoids'. A phenomenal phytochemical, Astaxanthin is among the strongest of carotenoid antioxidants. Astaxanthin has been shown to dramatically improve many biological functions within the body, its properties ranging from anti-inflammatory to anti-aging. Astaxanthin's structure or molecule is very unique in nature;
no other molecule has been identified with an ability to absorb high-energy molecule radiation from the sun (protection), free radicals from stress and other harmful chemicals in the environment. To better protect the skin from sunburn and UV damage. Unlike conventional sunscreen lotions which merely act as a filter for UVA and UVB sunlight, the new ingredient releases an active ingredient which mops up free iron that is released when the skin burns. This reduces the inflammation and pain that goes with sunburn which is exacerbated by the iron - and also prevents the build up of harmful sunlight-generated free radicals, which can lead to the development of skin cancers. You show me a person who regularly uses sunscreen, and I'll show you a person who's on the road towards cancer and other degenerative diseases. People who use sunscreen are putting themselves at risk and they don't even know it! Sunscreen directly promotes vitamin D deficiency. Astaxanthin does not promote vitamin D deficiency it is a different type of sunscreen which supports Healthy Skin. Astaxanthin's
antioxidant properties will help repair previously damaged skin. A double whammy, protection for exposed skin and potential to help repair already damaged skin. Astaxanthin is to protect your DNA from breakage. It has a symbiotic effect with sunscreen, working to better protect the skin from sunburn and UV damage. Phytochemicals Catechins (gallic acids) Catechins are also classified as flavonoids. They have chemoprotective properties. Catechins differ slightly in chemical structure from other flavonoids, but share their chemo protective properties. The most common catechins are gallic esters, named epicatechin (EC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). All are found in green tea.. Carotenoids the carotenoids are a subclass of the terpenes. They have a cancerprotective effect on the tissues, specifically the lung, colorectal, breast, uterine, and prostate. This terpene subclass consists of bright yellow, orange and red plant pigments found in vegetables such as tomatoes, parsley, oranges, pink grapefruit, spinach and red palm oil. We even find carotenoids lending bright colors to
animals; flamingos owe their color to carotenoids, as do shellfish. Egg yolks are yellow because of carotenoids that protect the unsaturated fats in the yolk. The carotenoid family actually includes two distinct types of molecules. One type, the carotenes, is chemically classified as 40-carbon tetraterpenes, which do not include specific chemical features like hydroxyl or keto groups. This type of carotenoid includes the familiar molecule beta carotene. The second type of carotenoids, the xanthophylls, includes the chemical compounds known as the carotenoid alcohols and keto-carotenoids. In this second category are included the molecules zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and astaxanthin. Phytochemicals Carotenoids (continued) There are more than 600 naturally occurring carotenoids. Most people think of this family of phytonutrients as being precursors to vitamin A, but fewer than 10 percent have vitamin A activity. Among the carotenes, only alpha, beta and epsilon carotene possess vitamin A activity. Of these, beta carotene is the most active. Alpha carotene possesses 50 percent to 54 percent of the antioxidant activity of beta carotene, whereas epsilon carotene has 42 percent to 50 percent of the antioxidant activity. The above-mentioned carotenes, along with gamma carotene and the carotenes lycopene and lutein, which do not convert to vitamin A, seem to
offer protection against lung, colorectal, breast, uterine and prostate cancers. Carotenes are tissue-specific in their protection. Overall protective effects are therefore greater when all carotenes are taken together. Carotenes also enhance immune response and protect skin cells against UV radiation. Additionally, they "spare" the glutathione Phase II detoxification enzymes in the liver that we rely on to safely eliminate pollutants and toxins from the body. The xanthophylls type of carotenoids also includes many interesting molecules. One xanthophyll, canthaxantin, was popular as a tanning pill a few years ago. It migrates to the skin and protects it from sunlight. Other important xanthophylls are cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and astaxanthin. Xanthophylls are important because they appear to protect vitamin A, vitamin E and other carotenoids from oxidation. Evidence is emerging that xanthophylls are tissue specific. Cryptoxanthin, for example, may be highly protective of vaginal, uterine and cervical tissues. Phytochemicals Ellagic Acid a phenolic compound, inhibits the growth of cancer cells and arrests the growth in persons with a genetic predisposition for the disease. Ellagic acid can be obtained by eating strawberries, cranberries, walnuts, pecans, pomegranates and the best source, red raspberry
young shoots. Ellagic Acid Study: The Hollings Cancer Institute at the University of South Carolina has conducted a double blind study on a group of 500 cervical cancer patients that had everyone excited. Nine years of study have shown that a natural product called Ellagic acid is causing G-arrest within 48 hours (inhibiting and stopping mitosis-cancer cell division), and apoptosis (normal cell death) within 72 hours, for breast, pancreas, esophageal, skin, colon and prostate cancer cells. on cultured human cells also show that Ellagic acid prevents the destruction of the p53 gene by cancer cells. Additional studies suggest that one of the mechanisms by which Ellagic acid inhibits mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is by forming adducts with DNA, thus masking binding sites to be occupied by the mutagen or carcinogen. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized, according to chemical structure, into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins and chalcones. Over 4,000 flavonoids have been identified, many of which occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages (tea, coffee, beer, wine and fruit drinks). The highest concentration is in the embryonic tissue of plant growth. Much more bio absorbable than in nutritional supplements form and also more complete in the variety broad spectrum types of flavonoids. The flavonoids have aroused considerable interest recently because of their potential beneficial effects on human health-they have been reported to have antiviral, antiallergic, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant activities.
Table 1. Common Dietary Flavonoids Flavonoid Subclass Dietary Flavonoids Some Common Food Sources Anthocyanidins Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin Red, blue and purple berries, red and purple grapes, red wine Flavanols
Monomers (Catechins): Catechin Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate Dimers and Polymers: Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples Theaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong) Proanthocyanidins:
Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine Flavanones Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol Citrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemons Flavonols Quercetin, Kaempferol, Astragalin, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin Widely distributed: yellow
onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas Flavones Apigenin, Luteolin Parsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers, Isoflavones Daidzein, Genistein, Glycitein Soybeans, soy foods, legumes Antioxidant flavonoids (listed in order of decreasing potency)
Quercetin (a flavonol in vegetables, fruit skins, onions) Xanthohumol (a prenylated chalcone in hops and beer) Isoxanthohumol (a prenylated flavanone in hops and beer) Genistein (an isoflavone in soy) Pro-oxidant flavonoids Chalconaringenin (a non-prenylated chalcone in citrus fruits) Naringenin (a non-prenylated flavanone in citrus fruits) Factoid: In vitro tests have shown that it takes only 100 M of prenylflavonoids to achieve an anti proliferating and cytotoxic effect in a culture of 500,000 tumor cells. The in vitro laboratory tests showed no toxicity. Prenylflavonoids have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidizing properties.
The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants depends upon their molecular structure. The position of hydroxyl groups and other features in the chemical structure of flavonoids are important for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, is a potent antioxidant because it has all the right structural features for free radical scavenging activity. citrus fruits) Flavonoids are a diverse group of chemicals found in all plants. About 4000 phytochemicals belong to the flavonoids group. Examples of flavonoids are luteolin, quercetin, blumeatin, tetrahdrooxyflavanone, epigallocatechingallate, anthocyanins, and tamarixetin. Flavonoids are secondary metabolite products from the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. All Flavonoids are derived from a chalcone precursor. The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants depends upon their molecular structure. The position of hydroxyl groups and other features in the chemical structure of flavonoids are important for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, is a potent antioxidant because it has all
the right structural features for free radical scavenging activity. citrus fruits) Function of Flavonoids in plants Plant-microorganism interactions : Flavonoids play roles as signal molecules, phytoalexins, detoxifying agents, and stimulants for germination of spores. Flavonoids may have defensive or stimulant role depending on the microorganisms role in the plant. Pigments : Anthocyanins give the colors of flowers, fruits, and leaves of plants. Flavor : Flavonoids are among an array of the chemicals in plants that give the rich taste of plant products. The flavor may act as repellant or attractant to microorganisms or pests or pollinators. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and scavengers of free radicals. Free radicals cause cellular, and DNA damage in our body and consequently induce age-related diseases such as dementia and cancer. What can high-flavonoid do for our health?
Help protect blood vessels from rupture or leakage Enhance the power of your Vitamin C Protect cells from oxidative damage Prevent excessive inflammation throughout your body What events can indicate a need for more high-flavonoid? Easy bruising Frequent nose bleeds Excessive swelling after injury Frequent colds or infections In some cases, flavonoids can act directly as antibiotics by disrupting the function of microorganisms like viruses or bacteria. The antiviral function of flavonoids has been demonstrated with the HIV virus, and also with HSV-1, a herpes simplex virus. What are toxicity symptoms for flavonoids? Even in very high amounts (for example, 140 grams per day), flavonoids do not appear to cause unwanted side effects. Even when raised to the level of 10% of total caloric intake, flavonoid supplementation has been shown non toxic. Studies during pregnancy have also failed to show problems with high
level intake of flavonoids. Is not warranted at high amounts it will deregulate apoptosis. What medications affect flavonoids? The impact of prescription medicines on flavonoid status is not well studied. However, in an interesting twist when looking from the other direction at the impact of flavonoids on drug status, researchers have discovered that a flavonoid in grapefruits juice called naringin can increase the absorption of certain heart-related drugs (including nifedipine, felodipine and verapamil), as well as the antihistamine terfenadine. Flavonoids have recently gained much attention due to their potential anticancer effects. The molecular mechanisms behind the chemoprotection conferred by these compounds. (Activator Protein-1) given the role of AP-1 activation in tumor promoter induced transformation, tumor invasion and apoptosis, much research has been targeted toward the effects of dietary flavonoids on AP-1. Studies have shown that flavonoids, such as those found in green and black tea, suppressed activation of AP-1 and that quercetin can inhibit PMA-induced cjun activation and PKC activity. Results demonstrated a marked increase in AP-1 activity upon treatment with the flavonoids chalcone, flavone and apigenin in both human
endometrial Ishikawa and HEK 293 cells, two estrogen-unresponsive cell lines, indicating the presence of an ER-independent mechanism. In addition, AP-1 activation was further enhanced by co treatment with PMA. In which they demonstrated that quercetin enhanced activation of AP-1mediated transcription by PMA in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Several papers demonstrating a critical role for AP-1 in apoptosis raise the possibility that AP-1 activation in this context leads to a cell death or antiestrogenic phenotype rather than a cell proliferation or estrogenic-type effect demonstrating the ability of flavonoids such as apigenin to induce apoptosis. The ability of select compounds tested here to activate AP-1 suggests the presence of multiple mechanisms in phytochemical signaling. The ability of flavonoids to selectively regulate MAPK-responsive pathways suggests a mechanism by which dietary phytochemicals may influence human health and disease. Oct. 15, 2004 Could the most common kind of cancer -- basal cell skin cancer be defeated by a chemical in the common corn lily plant? Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) think it's possible. Cyclopamine Takes on Basal Cell Skin Cancer. They had a 90% reduction in microscopic basal cell skin cancers. Compared with the
mice that didn't get cyclopamine, the mice drinking cyclopamine also had half the number of new basal cell skin cancers and fewer visible basal cell skin cancers. The chemical appears to have one simple -- but crucial -- action. It breaks down a single link in the biochemical reactions that lead to basal cell skin cancer, causing tumor cells to die, according to a news release. In addition to treating basal cell skin cancer, cyclopamine might also prove useful against other cancers. If you can treat basal cell skin cancers with an oral drug, you should be able to treat other kinds of tumors, too -- gastrointestinal tumors, prostate cancers, lung cancers, and some breast cancers, says Xie in the news release. Phytochemicals Fraxetin suggest that the natural antioxidants, such as fraxetin, may prevent the apoptotic death of dopaminergic cells induced by rotenone and mediated by oxidative stress. Neuroprotective effect of fraxetin and myricetin against rotenoneinduced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. A significant antioxidant effects of fraxetin on glutathione status redox status. Fraxetin inhibits the induction of anti-Fas IgM, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta-mediated apoptosis by Fas pathway inhibition in human osteoblastic cell line MG-63. By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin ELISA assay, we have shown that
fraxetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. In addition, assessment whether fraxetin affects inflammatory cytokine-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. TNF-alpha or IL-1beta enhances apoptotic DNA fragmentation in anti-Fas IgM-treated MG-63 cells by increasing Fas receptor expression. However, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment alone does not induce apoptosis. Treatment of MG-63 cells with fraxetin not only inhibited anti-Fas IgM-induced apoptosis, but also blocked the synergetic effect of anti-Fas IgM with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta on cell death. The apoptotic inhibition of fraxetin is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-mediated Fas expression and enhancement of FLIP expression, resulting in a decrease of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate a potential use of fraxetin in preventing osteoporosis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. Phytochemicals Glucosinolates the glucosinolates are powerful activators of liver detoxification
enzymes. They also regulate white blood cells and cytokines. Found in cruciferous vegetables, glucosinolates are powerful activators of liver detoxification enzymes. They also regulate white blood cells and cytokines. White blood cells are the scavengers of the immune system and cytokines act as "messengers," coordinating the activities of all immune cells. Bio-transformation products of glucosinolates include isothiocyanates, dithiolthiones and sulforaphane. Each of these is protective of specific tissues. Their actions involve blocking enzymes that promote tumor growth, particularly in the breast, liver, colon, lung, stomach and esophagus. Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside (flavonoid) (C28H34O15) found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense. It acts as an antioxidant according to in vitro studies. In human nutrition it contributes to the integrity of the blood vessels. Various preliminary studies reveal novel pharmaceutical properties. Heperidin reduced cholesterol and blood pressure in rats. In a mouse study large doses of the glucoside hesperidin decreased bone density loss. Another animal study showed protective effects against sepsis. Hesperidin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, vasoprotective, anti-carcinogenic and cholesterol lowering actions. Hesperidin can inhibit following enzymes: phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase, HMG-CoA reductase and cyclooxygenase. Helps in allergic conditions by inhibiting the release of histamine from mast cells. The possible anti-cancer activity of hesperidin could be
explained by the inhibition of polyamine synthesis. Hesperidin improves the health of capillaries by reducing the capillary permeability. Phytochemicals Isoflavones the action of this group is similar to the flavonoids; they effectively block enzymes that promote tumor growth. Isoprenoids neutralize free radicals in a unique way. They have a long carbon side chain which they use to anchor themselves into fatty membranes. Any free radicals attempting to attach lipid (fat) membranes are quickly grabbed and passed off to other antioxidants. Lignans with names such as secoisolariciresinol are considered to be phytoestrogens, plant chemicals that mimic the hormone estrogen. Bacteria in our intestines convert the naturally occurring phytoestrogens from flaxseed into two other lignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, which also have estrogen-like effects. Lignans are being studied for possible use in cancer prevention, particularly breast
cancer. Like other phytoestrogens such as soy isoflavones they hook onto the same spots of the cells where estrogen attaches. If there is little estrogen in the body post menopause, for example, lignans may act like weak estrogen; but when natural estrogen is too abundant in the body, lignans may instead reduce estrogen's effects by displacing it from cells. This displacement of the hormone may help prevent those cancers, such as breast cancer, that depend on estrogen to start and develop. In addition, at least one test tube study suggests that lignans may help prevent cancer in ways that are unrelated to estrogen. Phytochemicals Lignans prevents the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and has a tendency to raise HDLcholesterol has shown the ability to lower blood pressure, and has demonstrated that it is effective in preventing diabetes mellitus (Type I and Type II) and endotoxic shock. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), an antioxidant in flaxseed, is metabolized in the body and these metabolites have antioxidant activity which are even more potent than SDG. Flax seed is the richest source of omega-3 fatty acid and lignans. Omega-3 Fatty acid suppresses the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and of OFRs by
polymophonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocytes. Lignans possess antiplatelet activating factor (PAF) activity and are antioxidant. PAF, IL-1, TNF and LTB4 are known to stimulate PMNLs to produce OFRs. Limonoids this terpene subclass, found in citrus fruit peels, appears to be specifically directed to protection of lung tissue. In one study, a standardized extract of d-limonene, pinene and eucalyptol was effective in clearing congestive mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Additionally, limonoids may be specific chemo preventive agents. In animal studies, results suggest that the chemotherapeutic activity of limonoids can be attributed to induction of both Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes in the liver. Phytochemicals Lipoic acid and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) Both of these phytochemicals have strong antioxidant properties. Lipoic acids sphere of action is on both lipids and tissue fluids. Its a scavenger of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals, and it protects vitamins E and C, as well as SOD, catalase, and glutathione, which are all
important in liver detoxification activities. Lutein is a carotenoid, meaning a natural colorant or pigment, found in dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, plus various fruits and corn. Egg yolks are also sources of lutein. Lutein provides nutritional support to our eyes and skin the only organs of the body directly exposed to the outside environment. Lutein has been linked to promoting healthy eyes through reducing the risk of macular degeneration. Lutein also filters the high-energy, blue wavelengths of light from the visible-light spectrum by as much as 90%. Phytochemicals Phenolic acid compounds seem to be universally distributed in plants. They have been the subject of a great number of chemical, biological, agricultural, and medical studies. Phenolic acids form a diverse group that includes the widely distributed hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acid compounds occur most frequently as simple esters with hydroxy carboxylic acids or glucose.
Hydroxybenzoic acid compounds are present mainly in the form of glucosides. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity of the Phenolic Compounds in Plant Extracts has long been established. Plant phenolic compounds are polymerized into larger molecules such as the proanthocyanidins (PA; condensed tannins) and lignin. Phenol, the parent compound, used as an disinfectant and for chemical synthesis. Polyphenols like the flavanoids and tannins. Most culinary herbs spices contains phenolic acids such as tannic, gallic, caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, ferulic and vanillic acids. A high amount of tannic and gallic acids are found in black mustard and clove. Caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids are found in a good amount in cumin. Cannabinoids, the active constituents of Cannabis. There are countless herbs that have phenolic compounds. Phytochemicals Phytoalexins are a family of hormones that inhibit protein synthesis and thus "shut up shop" in the event of a pathogenic attack by halting the protein production process in our cells. Phytoalexins are similar to the antiviral proteins work has a
secondary line of defense. Some of the H202 triggers the creation of phytoalexins. Plants release hydrogen peroxide in response to the presence of a fungal invasion, which attacks by piercing the cell wall of a plant and breaking it down. Hydrogen peroxide stops the breakdown of the cell wall. Phytoalexins are antibiotics produced by plants that are under attack. Phytoalexins tend to fall into several classes including terpenoids, glycosteroids and alkaloids. Phytoalexins produced in plants act as toxins to the attacking organism. Quercetin is a powerful anti-oxidant. It is also a natural anti-histamine, and antiinflammatory. Research shows that quercetin may help to prevent cancer, especially prostate cancer. Quercetin is part of the coloring found in the skins of apples and red onions. Quercetin is present in most of the PSC extracts. Quercetin's anti-histamine action may help to relieve allergic symptoms and asthma symptoms. The anti-inflammatory properties may help to reduce pain from disorders such as arthritis. Phytochemicals Resveratrol It's a molecule so tiny it penetrates the wall of almost any cell in an organism. It continues into the cell nucleus, to the cell's genetic machinery. There, resveratrol selectively switches on genes that aid the survival of an organism, like
the Sirtuin 1 DNA-repair gene. Using gene silencing, it switches off genes involved in the initiation and progression of disease, blocking replication of bacteria, viruses, fungi and tumor cells. Extends life - by influencing gene functions, resveratrol has been shown to extend the life of yeast cells, fruit flies, round- worms, and fish and even over-fed laboratory mice. New studies show it slows the onset of virtually all of the aging diseases: heart, arthritis, cancers, and Alzheimer's. Other new discoveries show it does still more repairs alcohol damaged livers, slows bone loss (osteoporosis), boosts endurance, promotes hair growth, and re-energizes cells. Helps to regenerate neural cells. Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of cell DNA, thereby preventing the multiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens. Phytochemicals
Terpenes such as those found in green foods, soy products and grains, comprise one of the largest classes of phytonutrients. The most intensely studied terpenes are carotenoids--as evidenced by the many recent studies on beta carotene. The terpenes function as antioxidants, protecting lipids, blood and other body fluids from assault by free radical oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl, peroxide and superoxide radicals. Terpenoids are dispersed widely throughout the plant kingdom, protecting plants from the same reactive oxygen species that attack human cells. Thiols phytonutrients of this sulfur-containing class are present in garlic and cruciferous vegetables (i.e., cabbage, turnips and members of the mustard family). Thiol: is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). Being the sulfur analogue of an alcohol group (-OH), this functional group is referred to either as a thiol group or a sulfhydryl group. More traditionally, thiols are often referred to as mercaptans. The importance of thiols (organic sulfur derivatives also known as mercaptans) in human health. Thiols have numerous roles in biological systems including a central role in coordinating antioxidant defenses. The most important antioxidant in the human body is glutathione. The requirement for glutathione increases markedly during physical
exercise which in itself produces significant oxidative stress. Research has also shown that HIV patients generally have abnormally low levels of thiols indicating that HIV infection and oxidative stress are related. Phytochemicals Thiol compounds have shown to inhibits mercury induced auto immune disease. Thiol also very helpful in rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thiol-active redox reactions and reactive oxygen species (ROS)/ oxidative damage. Thiol-active redox reactions and reactive oxygen species (ROS)/ oxidative damage. Sulfhydryl oxidation/reduction and/or thiolation causing redox modifications of cellular proteins regulate a wide number of cell pathways associated with proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thiol also provides the health benefits of lowering LDL cholesterol and of maintaining a healthy immune system. Tocotrienols and tocopherols naturally occur in grains and palm oil along with
their cousins, tocopherols. Toco-trienols appear to inhibit breast cancer cell growth, whereas tocopherols do not exhibit this effect. Researchers have observed that the biologic functions of tocopherols and tocotrienols appear unrelated. Tocotrienols have been most studied, however, for their cholesterol lowering effects. Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoid contained within the retina. zeaxanthin is the dominant component, whereas in the peripheral retina, lutein predominates. BUDS ARE RICH IN : Key words: stem cells, initials, root meristem, shoot meristem HORMONES: Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic Acid, Ethylene, Brassinosteroids, Jasmonates, Salicylates, Polyamines. MINERALS / OLIGO-ELEMENTS responsible for enzymes production & ionic channels NUCLEIC ACIDS RNA DNA repairs and antibodies AMINO ACIDS building block VITAMINS nourishing ENZYMES digestion and anti-inflammatory BRUTE SAP detergent action ANTI-OXIDANTS which are the flavanoids FLAVANOIDS especially high in Quercetin
PHYTOCHELATIN chelating HORMONES IN THE BUDS Generally, the hormones plants produce are considered to be divided into five major classes: Gibberellins, Auxins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, and Ethylene. Additional suggested hormone classes: Brassinosteroids, Jasmonates, Salicylates, Polyamines are major classes 1, Auxins have a fetal hormonal action and are only found in plants, it stimulates cell growth and provides better resistance to disease, The Indole-acetic acid in auxins is what helps tissue regeneration. 2, Gibberellins is the other principal factor that stimulates RNA and protein synthesis. This was found in the buds and young shoots and not in the whole plant. Drainage, meaning Detoxification, by means of organ stimulation, tissue excitation & toxins elimination. Drainage perfectly adapted to the Vital Force disturbance being treated. Emunctories (An organ or duct that removes or carries waste from the body) & Excretory (regulate the chemical composition of body fluids by removing metabolic wastes and retaining the proper amounts of water, salts, and nutrients. Components of this system in vertebrates include the kidneys, liver, lungs, and skin) functions depurative is gemmotherapy for homeopathic terrain
used to stimulate, regulate & tonifies the function of specific organs. Regenerates dying cells! Scientific Facts about PGH The hormones are made mostly in young and meristem cells and much less in mature cells. Stress Hormones, in contrast, are made in cells that are faced with a scarcity of nutrients and again are an indication of such a condition. The Stress hormones are made mostly in mature cells and much less in immature (e.g. meristematic) cells. University of Minnesota reported identifying a new flavin monooxygenase (FMO)-like enzyme that is central to auxin biosynthesis. The FMOs can act to detoxify xenobioticsnaturallyoccurring toxic compounds in food. The tryptamine that this enzyme acts on comes from the tryptophan-dependent pathway for auxin biosynthesis. The ability of plants to produce complex molecules: Plants are higher eukaryotes (any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or meiosis, characteristic of all life forms except bacteria, blue-green algae, and other primitive microorganisms), and are able to produce a range of proteins which cannot be synthesized in prokaryotic (eg bacterial) systems. Prokaryotic cells differ significantly from eukaryotic cells.
They don't have a membrane-bound nucleus and instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circular loop called a plasmid. The cell proliferating effect of jasmonic acid and gibberellic acid on human skin keratinocytes. Increasing cell growth, stimulating cell turnover and promoting the secretion of mucus within the reproductive tract of a female mammal. Apoptosis: a critical process in homeostasis Apoptosis, sometimes called "a guardian angel" or "cell policeman," is a cell suicidal altruistic mechanism targeted to selectively eliminate cancerous and other cells that threaten our health and life. The sacrifice of the "bad" cells occurs to save the integrity and life of the whole organism. Apoptosis is carried out by a multistage chain of reactions in which ROS act as triggers and essential mediators. Recently, it became evident that mitochondria play a critical role in apoptosis Apoptosis: a critical process in homeostasis All cells have a finite lifespan and cell death occurs mainly as a result of passive necrotic processes or due to an active process of programmed cell death termed
apoptosis. Apoptosis is the most common mechanism by which the body eliminates damaged or unneeded cells without local inflammation from leakage of cell contents. The necrotic mode of cell death represents a passive consequence of mechanical damage or exposure of the cells to toxins. Increased mitochondria membrane permeability, leading to the release of proapoptotic proteins and subsequent formation of apoptotic bodies. Dysregulation of apoptosis is implicated in a variety of diseases states. Accelerated cell death is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Conversely, an inappropriately low rate of apoptosis can give rise to cancer or autoimmune disorders. Apoptosis: a critical process in homeostasis In normal cells, apoptosis is initiated in response to developmental cues, cell stress, changes in growth factor signaling, and signaling from oncogenes. Cancer cells, however, although damaged, are often able to bypass this mechanism and escape apoptosis. Dysregulation of apoptosis is a key hallmark of cancer and is critical for cancer development and tumor cell survival.
Apoptosis occurs via two main signaling pathways (a) the intrinsic and (b) the extrinsic pathways. Destruction of the cell is ultimately carried out by intracellular protease enzymes called caspases that, on activation through the intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways, destroy cellular proteins that are vital for cell survival. The activation or restoration of apoptosis is emerging as a key strategy to treat cancer and other diseases. Conventional cancer therapies (radio- and chemotherapy) have limitations in treating metastatic disease because of the existence or development of treatment-resistant tumor cells. Apoptosis activation as a therapeutic strategy for cancer which treat causative events rather than symptoms of a major group of degenerative diseases of aging. Inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis Unlike normal cells, cancer cells proliferate rapidly and lose the ability to respond to cell death signals by undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis: a critical process in homeostasis Cell survival is maintained by a balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic stimuli. Dysregulation of apoptosis can disrupt the equilibrium between cell growth and cell death and is an important step in the development of cancer.
Current conventional therapies such as radio- and chemotherapy indirectly promote apoptosis, although this is an important endpoint of the therapeutic effect. These regimens induce apoptosis by causing DNA damage. In doing so, they stimulate apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is one of many proteins that contributes to the activation of the intrinsic signaling pathway. Inactivation of this protein or elements of its attendant pathway (upstream activators and/or downstream effectors), due to mutation, is seen in as many as half of all human cancers. Promoting the alternative extrinsic apoptosis pathway, which operates independently of p53 oncogene, or augmenting downstream elements of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway may have the potential to induce apoptosis both in cancer cells that are responsive and in those that have become resistant to conventional therapies. Regulators are being explored, including auxins, derivatives of abscisic acid and brassinosteroids compounds and develop selective drugs that either block proliferation or induce apoptosis Apoptosis: a critical process in homeostasis Human neutrophils are constantly produced in the marrow and released into the blood to search for invading pathogens. After only one day, they "commit suicide"
and are replaced by younger cells. Apoptosis is distinguished from necrosis, which was associated with acute injury to cells. Apoptosis is characterized by nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing. Mitochondria remain unchanged morphologically. While there is much to be learned about the molecular pathways leading to apoptotic cell death, it is increasingly clear that cell death is a normal part of normal biological processes. This had not been appreciated until relatively recently, and our understanding of such death, and our ability to manipulate it, could allow therapeutic intervention in major diseases. Apoptosis plays a critical role in important biological processes such as morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, the elimination of damaged or virally infected cells, and elimination of self-reactive clones from the immune system. Mitochondria play an important role in the regulation of cell death. They contain many pro-apoptotic proteins such as Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Smac/DIABLO and cytochrome C. With clear advantages in protecting against mitochondrial DNA damage, cell, and organ death in toxic disease models. Apoptosis: a critical process in homeostasis Genentech researchers continued to extend the understanding of the multitude of
proteins involved in maintaining the delicate balance between cell survival and death. The research and development of novel therapeutics that target different aspects of the apoptosis pathways. A newly discovered pathway by which cells protect themselves from a toxic by product of photosynthesis may hold important implications for bioenergy sources, human and plant diseases. Plants turn energy from sunlight into bioenergy through a chemical process called photosynthesis, which also produces oxygen in its breathable form. However, photosynthesis can also generate an alternate form of singlet oxygen, which is a highly reactive and toxic substance that destroys biological molecules. Considerable advances in our understanding of how cells protect themselves from several reactive oxygen species." However, nothing has previously been known about how cells alter gene expression to respond to singlet oxygen. We may now be able to design pharmaceuticals that target this response, and ultimately may help us mitigate disease." When a plant is under stress at any given stage of growth, reduced levels of cytokinin growth hormones are produced. KEY PROCESS TO REGENERATION 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Remove Body Burden thru detoxification with Vegetal Placenta (VP), which are extracted from a special phyto specie while they are still in the embryonic stage of cell division in the buds. Stimulate the renewal process. Removes the number of cytotoxic and cytogenetic effects caused by various detrimental factors (environmental pollutants, etc) Repair damaged Cells by optimizing Apoptosis. Restoration of Apoptosis Cell Regeneration is a process of mobilizing and directing the flow of cellular energy to stimulate, facilitate, and accelerate the natural healing processes of the human body. The estimated sixty billion cells in an infant represent a virtually inexhaustible source of untapped energy.
Therapeutic effect is attained by antioxidant, immunomodulating and antiinflammatory properties. Regulatory agents for regulation of the hormonal level and the hormonal status. Restore the Reticulo Endothelial System. Enzyme Phytochelatin Synthase was discovered September 06, 2001 by Biologists at the University of Pennsylvania. Phytochelatin which works by polymerizing glutathione, a sulfurrich peptide with a high affinity for toxic metals. The products of these reactions, phytochelatins, bind very strongly onto heavy metal atoms, immobilizing them and preventing them from moving to parts of the cell where their toxic effects are exerted. PSC Concentrated Gemmotherapy Superior Chelation! There is no more powerful tool of detoxification than that of PSC Concentrated Gemmotherapy! Indispensable PSC Concentrated Gemmotherapy for today health care Toxicology & Phyto Pharmacokinetic. Gibberellins Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpenoid acids that function as plant
growth regulators influencing a range of developmental processes in higher plants including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction and leaf and fruit senescence. It was discovered by two distinguished Japanese Pathologists, Yosaburo Fujikuro and Kenkichi Sawada in 1930. Auxins The term auxin is derived from the Greek word auxein which means to grow. Compounds are generally considered auxins if they can be characterized by their ability to induce cell elongation in stems and otherwise resemble indoleacetic acid (the first auxin isolated) in physiological activity. Auxins were the first plant hormones discovered was first discovered by Scientist Charles Darwin in 1880 Auxins The Indole-acetic acid in auxins is what helps tissue regeneration. It is
also a natural anti-inflammatory. I have had tremendous success with the use of nonselective NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) The Power of Plants: We know how powerful plant foods are for preventing certain cancers. Now British scientists have demonstrated that the plant hormone indole acetic acid (IAA), coupled with a certain enzyme, can destroy cancerous tumors while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The research offers hope for cancer treatments that do not cause hair loss, nausea, and other harsh side effects. Prof Peter Wardman of the Gray Cancer Institute/Cancer Research Campaign (CRC) in the UK, has found that the plant molecule indole acetic acid (IAA) could be converted to produce toxic oxygen radicals, which destroy 99.9 per cent of cancerous cells while leaving healthy cells undamaged. This means IAA treatment could result in fewer side effects, such as hair loss, than other cancer treatments.
Auxins TIR1 (TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1); is similar to human enzymes that are known to be involved in cancer. "Learning that auxin regulates TIR1 is a huge advance for plant biology. Until now it was believed enzymes like TIR1, called ubiquitin ligases, could only be controlled through protein-protein interactions. Ubiquitin ligases influence growth and light response in plants, poison mitigation in yeasts and also cancerous cell division in humans. The mechanism by which auxin works points out a new direction for us to develop therapeutic compounds targeting ubiquitin ligases."
Scientists learned that auxin is a sort of "molecular glue" that improves the ability of TIR1 to bind its peptide target. In the absence of auxin, TIR1 does not bind its target as tightly. "A number of human disorders including Parkinson's disease, and colon and breast cancers, are caused by defective interactions between ubiquitin ligases and their substrate polypeptides. What the plant hormone tells us is that it might be possible to rescue these interactions using small molecules." Auxins How auxin regulates TIR1 in plants provides clues to new treatments for human diseases ubiquitin protein ligase TIR1 PGPs and Human Health Multiple Drug-Resistance/P-glycoproteins (MDR/PGPs) function in
pumping chemotherapeutic drugs out of cells in human cancer patients. Flavonoids inhibit the activity of MDR/PGPs, so more of the drug stays in the cancer cells, decreasing the effective dose of chemotherapy drug given to a patient, thereby reducing the adverse effects of the drug on the patient. Co-therapies with flavonoids are being used. For example, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy may be instructed to drink grapefruit juice (hesperidin is the active flavonoid) prior to their treatment. The flavonoid EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) from green tea modulates MDR/PGP activity, reverses MDR/PGP drug resistance, and reduces MDR/PGP gene expression. Auxins APM (aminopeptidase M) and cellular trafficking. Loss of traditional diets rich in flavonoids and other nutrients among Americans has contributed to the rise of type II diabetes and obesity. APM/IRAP is involved in intracellular trafficking of proteins related to type II diabetes, and they are also involved in sterol uptake into intestinal cells. Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit both the activity of the M1 proteinases and to modulate intracellular trafficking. Therefore, flavonoid-based therapies and a return to traditional diets can help reduce the incidence of type II diabetes and
obesity. The use of herbicides on our food has been linked to cancer. APM activity in food crops reduces the toxicity of the herbicide to the plants, but can increase the carcinogenicity of the herbicides to humans. Flavonoid Signaling; Flavonoids are poylyphenolic compounds that are important flavor and color constituents of plant-based foods. Flavonoids are signaling molecules within the plant, between the plant and other organisms (nod gene induction in rhizobacteria), and within other organisms. For example, flavonoids are phytoestrogens and act as mild estrogens in humans. Auxins Flavonoid accumulation in the plant is tissue-specific. Aglycone flavonols are associated with the PM and endomembranes. They act as autocrine effectors within the cells they are synthesized, but may also act as paracrine effectors in adjacent cells, as flavonols appear to be at plasmadesmata. (Murphy et al., 2000; Peer & Murphy, 2005)
Flavonoids are antioxidants antioxidants and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby potentially regulating the pathways induced by ROS. Flavonoids are also kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. As such, they can modulate signal transduction within the cell. Likely targets are PTEN, PID, RCN1 (PP2a), and PGPs. A major target of ROS is PTEN, a tumor suppressor implicated in breast cancer. Flavonoids (like xanthohumol from hop) can reduce stimulate PTEN and reduce tumor proliferation. Auxins IAA treatment induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Arabidopsis roots. In the absence of flavonoids (tt4), more ROS fluorescence is observed but decreased ROS fluorescence if excess flavonols are present (tt3), due to flavonoid anti-oxidant activity. Flavonol accumulation also occurs after IAA treatment; IAA catabolism induces ROS. A modest increase in flavonols is observed after a modest increase in IAA, but after NPA treatment, which increases the amount of IAA in cells, flavonol accumulation is significantly increased. Flavonols
also modulate auxin transport (Peer et al., 2004; Peer & Murphy, 2005) Auxins Professor Gordon McVie, director general of the Cancer Research Campaign, said the research was "incredibly clever". He said: "It's long been the ambition of cancer researchers to develop drugs that directly target the tumor, and thanks to these amazing plant hormones and a bit of nifty chemistry, we're now a step closer to that ideal. "It's fascinating that for all the sophisticated technology our scientists are employing, both the active molecules in this study were provided by nature."
Cancer Research Campaign scientists in the UK found that the molecule - Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) - has powerful anti-cancer properties. They have also found that the hormone can be activated by light. This means that doctors can eradicate accessible tumors by using a dye and then shining a light on it. Cytokinins Cytokinins are protective factors to the cells as they undergo cell mitosis (cell division). As cells replicate the DNA is constantly being copied. Without cytokinins there is, on occasion, mistranslating of the DNA molecules, however, with cytokinins present the DNA is replicated perfectly every time. Cytokinins are the subject of current research. As a matter of fact, these molecules have just begun to catch the eye of researchers, but it
looks like they may play a key role in fighting sickness and disease and in helping with longevity. Cytokinins stimulate cell division and inhibit senescence. Abscisic Acid What is abscisic acid; defined as a plant stress hormone that allows the plant to adjust to the outside stress it may encounter. Abscisic Acid (ABA) is a naturally occurring compound in plants. It is a sesquiterpenoid (15-carbon) partially produced via the mevalonic pathway in chloroplasts and other plastids. Because it is synthesized partially in the chloroplasts, it makes sense that biosynthesis primarily occurs in the leaves. The production of ABA is accentuated by stresses such as water loss and freezing temperatures. It is believed that biosynthesis occurs indirectly through the production of carotenoids. Ethylene Ethylene, unlike the rest of the plant hormone compounds is a gaseous hormone. Like abscisic acid, it is the only member of its class. Of all the known plant growth substance, ethylene has the simplest structure. It is produced in all higher plants and is usually associated with fruit ripening
and the triple response. Ethylene is defined as the only gaseous plant hormone, responsible for the fruit ripening, growth inhibition, leaf abscission, and aging. HH C=C Betaine Betaine, or Glycine Betaine is an osmoprotectant (Osmosis: the movement of water around a plants system through semi permeable membranes.) that is produced by plants under times of environmental stress such as drought, increased soil salinity levels and freezing. Osmoprotectants are generally not species specific and therefore can be introduced into plants in which they do not occur naturally . Additional suggested hormone classes: Brassinosteroids (BAs) In 1979 it was identified as brassinolide - a steroid compound (steroids are triterpenoids). Brassinolid appears to be the most common Brassinosteroid.
May work in concert with Gibberellin or be part of the hormone effect cascade. Is visually similar to the hormone cortisol and may function in a similar manner, raising phloem sugar levels to deal with short term environmental stress just like cortisone. Resistance to stress Brassinosteroids act with auxins to encourage leaf elongation and inhibit root growth. Brassinosteroids also protect plants from some insects because they work against some of the hormones that regulate insect molting. Jasmonates (JAs) Jasmonic Acid is released by plants when wounded and helps organize healing and defense. Wound response stimulation. Senescence promotion. Jasmonates regulate growth, germination, and flower bud formation. They also stimulate the formation of proteins that protect the plant against environmental stresses, such as temperature changes or droughts. Salicylates (SAS) Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. It is usually prepared by Kolbe synthesis (aka Kolbe Schmitt reaction). Salicylic acid functions as a plant immune
hormone. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) Salicylic Acid is the primary immune hormone in plants. Triggers systemic immune response. Acts as a mild antibiotic. Salicylates stimulate flowering and cause disease resistance in some plants. The Polyamines The polyamines, e.g. putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, constitute a group of cell components that are important in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell differentiation. There is also evidence suggesting a role for polyamines in programmed cell death. The figure above summarizes the metabolism and functions of polyamines. Although their exact functions have not yet been identified, it is clear that the polyamines play important roles in a number of cellular processes such as replication, transcription, and translation. Presumably these roles are exerted by specific interactions that can only be mediated by the cationic polyamines with their characteristic, unique, and flexible charge distributions. SAFER Plant Growth Hormone
PGH treatment programs for athletes or growth problems in children and replacement therapy for aging men and women are offered by Concentrated Gemmotherapy Plant Stem Cells Therapy. Plant Growth Hormone PGH accelerates wound healing, healing and rehabilitation following injury, reverses the biological and physical effects of aging, maximizes athletic performance, increases capacity for exercise and allows athletes to live up to their genetic potential. PGH therapy and growth hormone treatments give bodybuilders, weightlifters, and strength athletes access to the most advanced use of Pant Stem Cell Therapy. And contrary to Human Growth Hormones which poses the risk of cancer concentrated gemmotherapy does not pose such risk. Nor will it affect the function of the pituitary gland. PGH Benefits: Detoxifies-Nourishes-Regenerates Reverses the effects of aging Reverses muscle wasting
14% Reduction in Weight and 9% increase in lean muscle after body fat after six months, without six months, without exercise dieting Increases energy level, Increases cardiac output endurance and exercise capacity athletic performance and Plant growth hormone accelerates Reduces stress and enhances wound healing and skin immune system
regeneration Improves memory retention and Increase recovery from athletic cognitive functions injury Improves vision Achieve a younger, tighter, more supple skin Improves kidney & liver and all Reverse osteoporosis due to its other organ functions osteoblast action. Improves sleep Phytochelatins Phytochelatins are a group of proteins that are inducible in plants when the plants are faced with heavy metal stress. They act in such a way that free metal ions are bonded to the proteins and placed into vacuoles where they are no longer toxic to the plant and they can eventually be used in the normal growth of the plant, that is if the metal is an essential element to the plants growth, like copper or zinc.
Consist of just three amino acids; Cysteine, Glycine, and Glutamic acid, arranged generally in a (y-GluCys)n-Gly conformation. The fact that PCs are arranged in a y-carboxylamide bond suggests that the phytochelatins are not a direct result of expression of a metal tolerance gene, but rather a product of a biosynthetic pathway, with glutathione, a detoxifying agent, most likely the substrate on which the pathway begins. PCs have been identified in many groups of plants and photosynthetic organisms, ranging from algae, through gymnosperms and monocots, to dicots. This suggests that the PC producing pathway evolved very early and has been important in the dexterity of vascular plants and their ability to evolve and grow in potentially hostile and toxic environments. (Murphy et al, 1997) There is some variation in the structure of PCs in the plant world. In maize the structure (y-GluCys)n-Glu has been identified, while in rice, (yGluCys)n-Ser has been identified. However, these are thought to be functional homologues to the normal conformation of the PCs. Metallothioniens Metallothioniens are similar proteins to phytochelatins in many ways, including the high number of cysteine molecules in the proteins, and the fact that both are responsible for the detoxification of heavy metals. In fact, PCs were originally classified as class 3 MTs, until they were deemed sufficiently different in structure
and synthesis pathway to be classified as PCs. All MTs have three characteristics in common: they have low molecular weight, a large fraction of cysteine residues, and a high metal content with coordination of metal ions in metal-thiolate clusters. (Raskin, 1996) The exact function of MTs in plants is still unclear. There is some variation in the cysteine arrangements of the proteins that, along with the amino acids inside the protein, may be the determinants of which metal the MT binds to. (Lacoste, 2001) Despite the lack of knowledge to the true nature of the function of MTs, type 2 MTs have been shown to be the primary determinant of the level of metal tolerance in the plants. Also, overexpression of yeast MT genes have been shown to improve the heavy metal tolerance in plants to which they have been inserted, and plant MT genes have increased the heavy metal tolerance of MT-deficient yeast. (Lacoste, 2001) The actual function of the MTs is thought to be one of several hypothesized but as of yet unproven theories. One theory states that MTs create ion storage pools for free excess heavy metal ions, which are chelated until the plant can use them, if the metals are essential. A second school of thought is that MTs are transport proteins that are responsible for moving excess heavy metals from sites where they have built up to toxic levels to areas of the plant where they are needed, or at least where the ion levels are not toxic.
Plant Sterols and Sterolins in Human Health A New Effective Tool For Disease Prevention and Treatment Including Autoimmune Diseases Plant sterols and sterolins are proven to be effective compounds modulating the immune system and, as a result, relieving people of symptoms associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. In the past, autoimmune conditions have been treated with toxic drugs, which cause immuno-suppression. There is another approach which is being researched and falls under that branch of immunology called neuroimmunomodulation: this approach uses sterols and sterolins. As a result of using this approach, the activity of certain cells in the immune system are enhanced and the activity of other cells in the immune system are inhibited. This modulation has led to successful treatment of a number of autoimmune diseases. An effective immune response involves two major groups of cells, lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The two major populations of lymphocytes are labeled B-lymphocytes (B cells.) and T-lymphocytes (T cells). B-lymphocytes mature within the bone marrow, while T- lymphocytes, which also arise within
stem cells of the bone marrow, migrate to the thymus gland to mature. The thymus gland, located in close proximity to the heart, secretes specific proteins, called thymic proteins, which signal T cells to perform a certain way. With aging comes atrophy of the thymus and altered production of thymic proteins referred to as thymicpause. THThere are two well defined populations of T cells: T-helper (TH) and T-cytotoxic (Tc) cells. Further research has now isolated two types of helper cells referred to as TH1 and TH2. TH1 releases interleukid-2(IL-2) and gamma interferon, which activate cytotoxic cells to become effective
scavengers. This type of response, cell-mediated, is crucial for the body to survive the attack of a wide host of pathogens. Should this type of response falter, an infection can become chronic. TH2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-6 and IL- 10, all of which are involved in B-lymphocyte development. This is referred to as humoral immunity and this type of response is capable of limiting the damage induced by most extracellular organisms. In a healthy individual, there exists a delicate balance between TH1 and TH2. These cells are directly related to one another; when Th1 levels are high, then TH2 are low and vice versa. Under certain conditions of illness, one line may predominate, creating an imbalance between TH1 and TH2 cells. TH2 dominated conditions include: Allergies Chronic Sinusitis Asthma Hepatitis C Cancer Viral infections Ulcerative colitis
TH1 dominated conditions would include the following: Diabetes type I Multiple sclerosis Rheumatoid arthritis Crohns disease Psoriasis Sarcoidosis H. pylori infections Hashimotos disease
Immune Modulation In the past, the management of immune conditions has usually involved the use of toxic drugs in order produce immunosuppression. Alternative therapies have looked at those natural remedies designed to strengthen the immune response, making one more resistant to disease. Now comes a new branch of immunology referred to as neuroimmunomodulation. This involves the use of naturally occurring substances able to normalize the immune response. In essence, taking a TH1 dominant state and pushing it to a Th2 state. The same would be true of a TH2 state being pushed to a TH1 state. Hence the result is TH1/Th2 balance. Plant Sterols Plant sterols are natural compounds found in edible vegetable oils. Although green and yellow vegetables contain significant amounts, their seeds concentrate the sterols. Most of the research on these phytonutrients has been done on the seeds of pumpkins, yams, soy, rice and herbs. Studies have shown that oral administration of plant sterols combined with plant enzymes is able to balance TH1 and TH2 cell types.
Clinical Uses of Plant Sterols Numerous studies have now emerged showing that plant oils in the form of sterols and sterolins have profound health benefits. These studies have indicated that plant sterols may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia; they may inhibit breast, prostate and colon cancer cell growth as well as reducing the inflammation seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Other studies have demonstrated that sterols inhibit the uptake of cholesterol in the intestines, making for the ideal treatment for lowering high levels of cholesterol. Conclusion As we enter the 21st century, we are faced with an ever-growing challenge of a toxic environment and other assaults placed on our bodys metabolic machinery. Our immune system due to its complex makeup is especially prone to insult and resulting damage. Plant sterols appear to offer a way of maintaining an integrative immune system. Further investigation is needed as to the health benefits of sterols and the benefits of their use in managing both acute and chronic illness in humans. Alkaloid: A cyclic organic compound that contains nitrogen in a negative oxidation state and is of limited distribution among living organisms. Over 10,000 alkaloids of many different structural types are known; and no other class of natural products
possesses such an enormous variety of structures. Therefore, alkaloids are difficult to differentiate from other types of organic nitrogen-containing compounds. Simple low-molecular-weight derivatives of ammonia, as well as polyamines and acyclic amides, are not considered alkaloids because they lack a cyclic structure in some part of the molecule. Amines, amine oxides, amides, and quaternary ammonium salts are included in the alkaloid group because their nitrogen is in a negative oxidation state (the oxidation state designates the positive or negative character of atoms in a molecule). Nitro and nitroso compounds are excluded as alkaloids. The almost-ubiquitous nitrogenous compounds, such as amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, prophyrins, and vitamins, are not alkaloids. However, compounds that are exceptions to the classical-type definition (that is, a compound containing nitrogen, usually a cyclic amine, and occurring as a secondary metabolite), such as neutral alkaloids (colchicine, piperine), the -phenyl-ethylanines, and the purine bases (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine), are accepted as alkaloids. Alkaloids often occur as salts of plant acids such as malic, meconic, and quinic acids. Some plant alkaloids are combined with sugars, for example, solanine in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomatine in tomato (Lycopersicum
esculentum). Others occur as amides, for example, piperine from black pepper (Piper nigrum), or as esters, for example, cocaine from coca leaves (Erythroxylum coca). Still other alkaloids occur as quaternary salts or tertiary amine oxides. While most alkaloids have been isolated from plants, a large number have been isolated from animal sources. They occur in mammals, anurans (frogs, toads), salamanders, arthropods (ants, millipedes, ladybugs, beetles, butterflies), marine organisms, mosses, fungi, and certain bacteria. Many alkaloids exhibit marked pharmacological activity, and some find important uses in medicine. Atropine, the optically inactive form of hyoscyamine, is used widely in medicine as an antidote to cholinesterase inhibitors such as physostigmine and insecticides of the organophosphate type; it is also used in drying cough secretions. Morphine and codeine are narcotic analgesics, and codeine is also an antitussive agent, less toxic and less habit-forming than morphine. Colchicine, from the corms and seeds of the autumn crocus, is used as a gout suppressant. Caffeine, which occurs in coffee, tea, cocoa, and cola, is a central nervous system stimulant; it is used as a cardiac and respiratory stimulant and as an antidote to barbiturate and morphine poisoning. Emetine, the key alkaloid of ipecac root (Cephaelis ipecacuanha), is used in the treatment of amebic dysentery and other protozoal infections. Epinephrine or adrenaline (see structure), produced in most animal species by the adrenal medulla, is used as a
bronchodilator and cardiac stimulant and to counter allergic reactions, anesthesia, and cardiac arrest. Oligo-Elements The Oligo-Elements, present in the PSC Concentrated Gemmotherapy are very close in amounts to the ones used in Homeopathy or Oligotherapy. 8X Oligotherapy supplementation is believed to enhance the movement of ions, essential for life, into and out of the cell. They work by optimizing the ionic channels on the surface of cells allowing flow to occur. Oligotherapy increases the individual action and effectiveness of other elements. Helps in correcting mineral excess or deficiency due to our eating habits. These
minerals are required for certain biological exchanges. The origins of Oligotherapy come from the research done by Bertrand at the Pasture Institute and subsequently continued by Jacques Menetrier, M.D. in 1944. Trace elements are: Manganese, Cobalt, Iodine, Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Vanadium, and Nickel. They represent 0.02% of our body. Construction elements include Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, Sulphur and Phosphorus, which make up 99.98% of our body. Trace elements work at cellular level. They act as catalysts to all the functions of the
cells. That means that the cells cannot reproduce healthily without trace elements in an ionized form. The first level of disease starts at cellular level. Healing at cellular level is the only way to cure bodily dysfunction in the long term. NUCLEIC ACIDS: A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses. Nucleic acid, so called because of its prevalence in cellular nuclei is the generic name of family of biopolymers The monomers are called nucleotides, and each consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Different nucleic acid types differ in the specific sugar found in their chain (e.g. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains 2-deoxyriboses). Also, the nitrogenous bases possible in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cystosine, and guanine are possible in both RNA and DNA, while thymine is possible only in DNA and uracil is possible only in RNA.
The sugars and phosphates in nucleic acids are connected to each other in an alternating chain through shared oxygens (forming a phosphodiester functional group). Using the conventional nomenclature, the carbons to which the phosphate groups are attached are the 3' and the 5' carbons. The bases extend from a glycosidic linkage to the 1' carbon of the pentose ring. Nucleic acids may be single-stranded or double-stranded. A doublestranded nucleic acid consists of two single-stranded nucleic acids hydrogen-bonded together. RNA is usually single-stranded, but any given strand is likely to fold back upon itself to form double-helical regions. DNA is usually double-stranded, though some viruses have single-stranded DNA as their genome. Nucleic acids are primarily biology's means of storing and transmitting genetic information, though RNA is also capable of acting as an enzyme.
AMINO ACIDS : are the "building Blocks" of the body. Besides building cells and repairing tissue, they form antibodies to combat invading bacteria & viruses; they are part of the enzyme & hormonal system; they build nucleoproteins (RNA & DNA); they carry oxygen throughout the body and participate in muscle activity. When protein is broken down by digestion the result is 22 known amino acids. Eight are essential (cannot be manufactured by the body) the rest are non-essential (can be manufactured by the body with proper nutrition). Plants are the most important, least understood, under appreciated and most taken for granted of all living things. The Eco-Physiology of Phytoremediation Phytoremediation can be categorized into six basic plant functions: 1)phytodegradation,2)phytoextraction,3)rhizofiltration,4)rhizodegradati on,5)phytostabilization, and 6)phytovolatilization. These functions are
clear examples of the eco-physiology of plants and its practical applications for environmental remediation. Several comparisons can be made between these plant processes and human metabolic functions. Phytoremediation detoxifies the planet, also adaptable for the Human Body Detoxification, nature incredible gift! 1) Phytodegradation Phytodegradation, also known as phytotransformation, is the breakdown of contaminants by metabolic processes within the plant, or the breakdown of contaminants external to the plant through the effect of compounds produced by the plants. Plants degrade contaminants through enzymatic pathways, and the metabolites are incorporated into new plant material. Phytodegradation processes are effective on organic pollutants including petroleum byproducts, pesticides like DDT, and explosives like TNT. The processes of phytodegradation can be compared to detoxification processes in the human body, especially those occurring in the liver, such as the cytochrome enzymatic pathways. 2) Phytoextraction
Phytoextraction is the use of plants to absorb toxic metals from the soil into the harvestable parts of the roots, stems, and leaves. Hyper-accumulators absorb unusually large amounts of metals in comparison to other plants. One or a combination of these plants is selected and planted at a particular site based on the type of metals present. After the plants have been allowed to grow for some time, they are harvested and either incinerated or composted to recycle the metals. Approximately 400 species of hyperaccumulators exist, including representatives of many families from herbs to perennial shrubs and trees. Unlike phytodegradation, the plant does not destroy or use the material, but simply stores it; as it absorbs more from the soil, concentrations of the substance within the plant can become extraordinarily high. For example, the tree Sebertia acuminata absorbs so much nickel that it bleeds a bluegreen latex when cut, caused by the oxidized nickel. Metals such as nickel, zinc, and copper are preferred by a majority of the hyper-accumulating plants; others absorb radioactive strontium, cesium, and uranium. Phytoextraction can be used to pull contamination from water deep in the earth. Because trees are the largest plants in the world, they are able to take up more contaminants than other plants. Poplar trees are being used to
extract the widely used solvent trichloroethylene from soil and water. Ninety-five percent of the solvent can be removed from groundwater by simply planting the trees and letting them grow, and about ninety percent of the solvent is degraded into harmless compounds. Through this function of hydraulic pumping, trees also prevent the spread of contaminated water to other areas. Phytoextraction of toxins by plants is analogous to the accumulation of toxins within the organs and tissues, especially the liver. 3) Rhizofiltration Rhizofiltration is similar to phytoextraction, but the plants are used primarily to address contaminated ground water rather than soil. The rhizosphere (the area surrounding roots of plants) contains 10 to 100 times the amounts of bacteria in unplanted soil; organic compounds degrade faster in this microbe-rich flora. As the roots become saturated with contaminants, they are harvested. For example, sunflowers were used successfully to remove radioactive contaminants from pond water in a test at Chernobyl. 4) Rhizodegradation Rhizodegradation is the breakdown of contaminants in the soil through microbial activity in the root zone (rhizosphere). Certain microorganisms can
digest organic substances such as fuels or solvents that are hazardous to humans and break them down into harmless products. Plants release sugars, alcohols, and acids from their roots, which provide nutrition for the microorganisms and enhance their activity. Biodegradation is also aided by plants loosening the soil and transporting water to the area. The degradative and detoxifying effects of the microbial rhizosphere during rhizofiltration and rhizodegradation are similar to functions performed by beneficial intestinal flora in humans. Using the rhizosphere of plants to enhance bacterial activity in soil is comparable to using probiotic supplementation to remove pathogens such as candida and their toxins. 5) Phytostabilization Phytostabilization is the use of plants to immobilize contaminants through absorption and accumulation by roots, adsorption onto roots, or precipitation within the rhizosphere. This process does not remove the toxins from the soil, but reduces their mobility, prevents their migration into groundwater and air, and decreases their entry into the food chain. Poplar trees, for example, can transpire between 50 and 300 gallons of water per day out of the ground. The water
consumption by the plants decreases the tendency of surface contaminants to move towards ground water and into drinking water. 6) Phytovolatilization Phytovolatilization is the uptake and transpiration of a contaminant by a plant, with release of the contaminant into the atmosphere. Phytovolatilization occurs as trees and other plants take up water and the organic contaminants. Some of these contaminants can pass through the plants to the leaves and evaporate, or volatilize, into the atmosphere. The leaves of plants are like lungs: both are responsible for respiration and volatilization of waste gases. The BUDS STIMULATE THE RETICULO-ENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM STIMULATE EMUNCTORY FUNCTIONS FACILITATE DETOXIFICATION OF THE ORGANISM ACTION ON TISSUE & CELL REGENERATION
Phytosociology is the study of the characteristics, classification, relationships, and distribution of plant communities. It is useful to collect such data to describe the population dynamics of each species studied and how they relate to the other species in the same community. Subtle differences in species composition and structure may point to differing abiotic conditions such as soil moisture, light availability, temperature, exposure to prevailing wind, etc. When tracked over time, species and individual dynamics can reveal patterns of response to disturbance and how the community changes over time. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY ANALOGUE TO THE HUMAN BODY When healing an illness, there is often relatively little that doctors and patients can do to directly produce optimum functioning of human physiology. Plants, however, provide the biochemical and nutritional
compounds that assist the bodys internal ecology and promote its innate homeostasis and equilibrium. Phytonutrients nourish the organs, support the tissues, and enhance immunity, while the medicinal phytochemicals constituents of botanical species detoxify metabolic waste and xenobiotics. No synthetic pharmaceutical drug can perform these functions. Similarly, there is relatively little that people can do to reverse global warming, to stabilize disturbed weather patterns, or to detoxify environmental contamination. But plants do all of these things. They cool the planet, help regulate the seasons, recharge groundwater, restore soil fertility and stop erosion, regenerate the ozone layer, bind atmospheric carbon dioxide, and purify the toxins we put everywhere. Plants perform the same crucial functions in the outer environment as they do in the inner environment of the body.
Biotransformation is the chemical alteration of compounds by living things; in particular, the microbial alteration of anthropogenic xenobiotics. Xenobiotics are chemicals made by humans that are not formed by 'natural' processes. It may also include 'natural' compounds produced primarily by human beings. The word means 'foreign to life'. Xenobiotics include such infamous things as: Polychlorinated aromatics: DDT, dioxins. Organophosphates and carbamates. Polycyclic aromatics: pyrene (creosote). Analogue Correlation between Plant and Human Anatomy and Physiology Plants and humans share numerous anatomical and physiological characteristics; we are actually more similar than different. Understanding
these remarkable parallels gives us a greater appreciation for the kinship that exists between the plant and human realms. This in turn is the basis of reverence for nature and the respectful coexistence with biodiversity. It also provides an understanding of what plant detoxifies which chemicals, and proves their detoxifying powers and RNA repair, regenerating dying cells and correcting organ function. The similarities between plants and humans can be simplified into three categories: 1) basic life needs, 2) anatomical and physiological characteristics, and 3) subtle functions. 1) Basic life needs The basic needs of plants and people are the same. Plants and people share the fundamental biological cycle of birth (germination), growing to maturity, reproduction, aging and decline, and death. Plants and people both need nutrients in order to grow and thrive, water to moisten the tissues (rehydration) and facilitate metabolic processes, air for respiration, and environmental and seasonal conditions conducive to life. Plants and people both need defense mechanisms to protect themselves from the elements and from other organisms; both suffer from diseases, viral and bacterial infections, and parasitic infestations. 2) Anatomical and physiological characteristics
There are numerous parallels between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of plants and people. Plants have outer cells that function similarly to skin. Just as human skin is lubricated and protected from the external elements by oily secretions of the sebaceous glands, the aerial surfaces of plants secrete wax produced from fatty acid precursors for waterproofing and immunity. Human bodies are shaped and supported by bony skeletons, while plants have their own connective tissues and skeletal structures; the growth and development of plant cells and organs rely on a skeleton comprised principally of microtubules and microfilaments. The blood vessels and capillaries of the human body can be compared to the xylem (wood) of plants, which is a complex vascular tissue containing water-conducting cells; the blood and lymph correlate with the various fluids that flow through the channels of the plants. The human alimentary canal is comparable to the roots, which draw nourishment into the outer tissues and cells of the plant. Humans and plants both have reproductive systems; human sperm and ova can be compared to the pollen-producing stamens and ovary-containing pistils. Like humans, plants have complex immune systems. Plants produce purely mechanical defenses, such as spines and thorns. Chemically, they secrete essential oils and oleoresins, which function as immunological compounds to discourage herbivores, stimulate healing of wounds, and protect from insect and fungal pathogens. Plants react to pathogens and diseases by producing certain
antibacterial compounds; phytoalexins are probably the most studied of these defensive compounds. These immune responses can be compared to various responses of the human immune system, such as the activation of lymphocytes. Plant metabolic functions are governed by hormones, as are human functions. Gibberellins & Auxins are a group of hormones that control growth and a wide variety of other plant developmental processes. Plants have detoxification mechanisms that work to break down xenobiotics; many of these mechanisms are similar to how the human body deals with toxic compounds. Both plants and humans require certain nutrients and enzymes to efficiently remove toxins and to protect themselves from stress. For example, glutathione plays an important role in various physiological processes of both plants and humans, functioning primarily as an antioxidant.. Like humans, plants suffer oxidative stress and free radical damage when exposed to xenobiotic compounds, and produce antioxidants in response. Pollutant tolerance in plants is determined by many of the same physiological mechanisms as in humans. In general, there are more similarities between the metabolic pathways of plants and humans than there are differences. The bodies of plants, like the bodies of humans, support complex microbial ecosystems. From the root tips to the tips of the highest leaves, plants provide a
diverse habitat for a wide range of microorganisms. Just as the skin and mucous membranes of the human body are the biogeography for various colonies, each zone of a plant has its own cohort of microorganisms. Both the human and the plant body set the stage for its microbial inhabitants, and in turn, the microbes establish a range of varied relationships with their partners, ranging from relatively inconsequential transient visits, to symbiotic functions, to pathogenic attacks. 3) Subtle functions There are other fascinating parallels between plants and humans that are more in the realm of subtle energetic physiology than purely biochemical or anatomical functions. Plants, like humans, have circadian rhythms. There is accumulating evidence that plants have multiple circadian clocks both in different tissues and, quite probably, within individual cells. Plant growth, like the growth of the human body, is guided by gravity. Gravitropism, the ability of plant organs to use gravity, has been recognized for over two centuries. Like the human body, plants develop symmetry of form; like the human body, these processes arise in embryogenesis. Plants communicate, both with other plants and with other forms of life. The primary signaling mechanism for this is semiochemicals. These secreted compounds act as attractants and repellants of beneficial or destructive insects, and allow plants to inform other plants of events such as insect attacks and infestation.
Emunctory Organs & Systems of Elimination The Father of modern day drainage is Dr. Antoine Nebel, a French medical doctor and homeopath during the beginning of the 1900s. The theory of drainage is to free the organism from morbid substances. Drainage remedies are developed to act on specific organ systems. Toxins in the body are classified as exogenous, endogenous and autogenous. Exogenous toxins come from external sources; tobacco, drugs, stimulants and amalgam fillings. Atmospheric pollutants such as motor exhaust, carbon dioxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide are
exogenous toxins. Also included in this category are mental and emotional factors capable of interfering with normal bodily processes, such as anxiety, grief, depression, stress, worry, emotional relationships and so on. Endogenous toxins are the result of viral or bacterial infections affecting the normal functions of the body and mycostatic (prevents mold) activity. This can include the by-products of the waste metabolism of yeasts, molds and fungus. Autogenous toxins are generated within the body from heredity weakness such as miasmatic influences such as psora, sycosis, etc. Waste is excreted from the body by that emunctory which is specially adapted to the work that function. Urea is eliminated by the kidneys, carbon dioxide by the lungs. Neither of these organs is so constituted
that it can do the work of the other. Hence, when the blood passes through the lungs these take out carbon dioxide and not urea; when it passes through the kidneys these remove urea and not carbon dioxide. Something very similar to this is seen when drugs are taken. One drug is expelled by vomiting, another by diarrhea, another by diuresis, another by diaphoresis and still another by expectoration. Other substances, not easily eliminated through these channels, are sent out through the skin in the form of skin eruptions. Each organ seems to excrete the drug that it can handle best. Emetics do not act on the stomach, but are ejected by the stomach. Purgatives do not act on the bowels, but are expelled through the bowels. Diaphoretics, instead of acting on the skin, are sent off in that direction. Diuretics do not act on the kidneys, but the poisonous drugs are gotten rid of through that emunctory, etc. The Law of selective Elimination: All injurious substances which, by any means gain admittance within the domain of vitality, are counteracted, neutralized and eliminated in such a manner and through such channels as will produce the least amount of wear and tear to the organism.
The Six Primary Emunctories are the Skin, GI (intestines), Lung, Lymphatic, Kidney and Bladder. The liver, stomach and pancreas are secondary emunctories since they perform many essential functions in the proper functioning of the primary emunctories. All cells produce waste that must be eliminated from the body. When the cell eliminates waste the blood is filled with toxins. This blood is sent to the liver which does its job of filtration and detoxification. These broken down wastes are sent to the primary excretory organs. Solid waste exits via the intestines, liquid via the bladder, gasses through the lungs and sweat through the skin. On the cellular levels, toxic blockages can be reversed by regressive vicariation into humoral phases. Allopathic medicines can cause the toxins to be suppressed or driven deeper into the body which is called progressive vicariation. This means suppression into lateral or deeper layers of the body.
Choosing a Remedy P Polycrest: Principal remedy of first rank A Adjuvant: That which assists, increases the action of principal remedy Remedy for Acute State versus remedy for Chronic State POLYCREST EMUNCTORIES The Six Primary Emunctories 1. SKIN Elm Ulmus Campestris (buds) Cedar of Lebanon Cedrus Libani (young shoots) Horsetail Equisetum Arvense (young shoots)
2. GI Intestines Cowberry Vaccinium Vitis Idaea (young shoots) European Alder Alnus Glutinosa (buds) Fig Ficus Carica (buds) Rosemary Rosmarinus Officinalis (young shoots) 3. LUNG Wayfaring Tree Viburnum Lantana (buds) Hazel Corylus Avellana (buds) 4. LYMPHATIC
Sweet Chestnut Castanea Vesca (buds) Detoxifies Lymphatic System, Lymphedema. Lymphatic Stasis. The only bud capable of improving Lymphatic Circulation. Silver Birch Betula Verrucosa (sap) Detoxifies Lymphatic System. Also you can obtain the SAP pure non- pasteurized in a 250ml size and add to custom made therapeutic program 1TBSP in the morning batch and only once a day. Crab Apple Malus Sylvestris (buds) Detoxifies Lymphatic System. 5. KIDNEY White Birch Betula Pubescens (bark of roots) All parts of any Birch helps the Kidneys Juniper Juniperus Communis (young shoots) Kidneys & Liver Silver Birch Betula Verrucosa (sap) Spring Cleaning from winter accumulated toxins Silver Birch Betula Verrucosa (buds) Horsetail Equisetum Arvense (young shoots)
6. BLADDER Cowberry Vaccinium Vitis Idaea (young shoots) Horsetail Equisetum Arvense (young shoots) Secondary Emunctories 1. LIVER Juniper Juniperus Communis (young shoots) with Kidney association Rosemary Rosmarinus Officinalis (young shoots) Hazel Corylus Avellana (buds) fibrosis or cirrhosis Rye Secale Cereale (rootlets)
2. STOMACH Fig Ficus Carica (buds) European Alder Alnus Glutinosa (buds) associated with food allergies 3. PANCREAS Walnut Juglans Regia (buds) OTHERS HEART Hawthorn Crataegus Oxyacantha (buds) Dogwood Cornus Sanguinea (buds) Lilac Syringa Vulgaris (buds)
ARTERIES Black Poplar Populus Nigra (buds) Dogwood Cornus Sanguinea (buds) VEINS Service Tree Sorbus Domestica (buds) Sweet Chestnut Castanea Vesca (buds) NERVES Linden Tree Tilia Tomentosa (buds)
Fig Ficus Carica (buds) PHASES of Detoxification (drainage) The first three phases are called humoral phases because intra-cellular systems are for the most part not disturbed. The defense systems of the body are intact and capable of responding to homotoxins by eliminating them through, various body orifices (including the skin and lungs). These phases are called the excretion, reaction and deposition phases of disease. The excretion phase eliminates toxins through the orifices. During the reaction phase inflammation is the primary means the body utilizes to remove homotoxins. During the deposition phase toxins are both deactivated and stored. There are some of the most important reasons for which it is not enough to give patients a simple single remedy. Instead, it is more and more often necessary to build a complex therapeutic strategy which gives many factors cooperating in the development of the struggle against disease. Therefore, in the Gemmotherapeutic strategy it will be normal to prescribe many remedies, for its synergistic effect and in obtaining corrective results. Approaching one problem at a time will not achieve
the overall balance of the entire organism. Not only in helping to eliminate toxic accumulation at the cellular level but also serves to stimulate the proper function of organs in order to improve the patient's overall health. POSOLOGY- DOSAGE The term bipolar action examples Dogwood Cornus Sanguinea (buds) anticoagulant antihemorrhage (DIC). Cowberry Vaccinium Vitis Idaea (young shoots) hyper or hypo bowel diarrhea and constipation ideal for IBS Hawthorn Crataegus Oxyacantha (buds) Hypertension or Hypotension Adult 3-9 Drops tid or qid Children 1-2 Drops tid or qid Animal depending on weight up to 80 lbs children dosage Complexes 3 drops for each PSC in the complex The Many Approaches of PSC Therapy Either from clinical indications Either from a scientific blood lab balancing act
understanding its chemical influences on blood chemistry and hematology due to their action and phytochemicals constituents. Either from Oligo-Elements point of view Either from an Antioxidants desired Either from a Chelation Approach Either from an Emunctories Approach Whatever your approach reduces tremendously the need for nutritional supplements since it is such a complete therapy. PSC Plant Stem Cell Therapy
Detoxification & Rejuvenation and nutrition at its Best The Most Wonderful Gift from Nature 35 Buds 16 Young Shoots 3 Barks (in the embryonic stage) 3 Rootlets, 1 Seed (germinated) 1 Flower Male Catkins 1 Flower and 1 Sap of tree 19 Complexes Betuligem Mother Tinctures, Propolis, Syrup, Ointment