# ASTR 1120 General Astronomy: Stars and Galaxies

ASTR 1200 Announcements .. Meet in Planetarium .. next Tuesday First Problem Set Assigned. Due next Tuesday in class. Observatory Sessions all now at 8:30pm Lecture Notes going up on the website Schedule has been updated. Exam dates set. Text Chapters now posted

Website http://casa.colorado.edu/~wcash/APS1200/APS1200.html The Sun The Sun Falls into Disk Stability 99.9% Ended in Sun (0.1% in Jupiter) Probably the Same Around All Stars -- Planets are Common Shoots Planet-Size

Bullets into Space Most of Mass Forms Ball in Center A Star Is a Hot Ball of Hydrogen (plus 11% Helium) One Million Miles

What Stops the Fall? Gravity Gets Stronger As Material Gets More Dense GMm Fg 2 R R smaller implies F greater The smaller it gets, the faster it falls in!

Why doesnt it just become a black hole? Or worse yet, a point-like singularity of mass? Scaling Scientists often do scaling do avoid all those large numbers. For example, the Sun is ABOUT a million times the mass of the Earth and a hundred times the size. 6

Vescape 10 11 1000km / s 100 Question What is the surface gravity of the Moon in gees? R=.25Re, M=.01Me? a).04

b)4 c)16 d).16 Answer d .01 g 11 0.16

2 .25 Temperature Temperature is a Measure of the Random Kinetic Energy per Particle The faster the atoms move, the higher the temperature. But were talking about random motion. If they all move together, then the object moves.

Thermal Pressure Thermal Gas Pressure Balances Gravitational Pressure Balloon Every Time An Bounces Off Edge of Balloon It Keeps It From Collapsing Thats Pressure Pressure is Force per Unit Area

Pressure is Proportional to Temperature Low Temperature Atoms Move Slowly High Temperature Atoms Move Fast A Star Is Held Up By Thermal Pressure From Below

Outer Mass Gravity Individual Atoms Dont Orbit Entire Inside of Star Like This They Jostle Each Other But Effect Is The Same

Temperature Scales Fahrenheit 0=salt water freeze 100=human body Celsius 0=pure water freeze 100=water boil (sea level)

C=(F-32)x5/9 Kelvin 0=absolute zero 100 degrees between freeze and boil K=C+273 -273C = 0K = Absolute Zero

At Absolute Zero Atoms Stop Moving Thermal Pressure PV nRT PV NkT Ideal Gas Law Chemistry Style Ideal Gas Law

Physics Style P V n R T Pressure Volume # moles

Constant Temperature (K) P V N k T Pressure Volume

# atoms Constant Temperature (K) Pressure Is Proportional to Temperature x Density Pressure Balance A Star Always Balances Gravitational Pressure with Thermal Pressure At Each Point Inside Thermal Pressure (Jostling)

Gravity But We Have a Problem The Sun is Luminous Radiates Energy Into Space Luminosity is Power Radiated -- ergs/second The Energy Comes From Motion of the Atoms Temperature Drops What Happens When T Drops?

Luminosity Effect When T Drops Thermal Pressure Cant Hold Off Gravity The Sun Shrinks -- Radius Drops Energy is Released as Gas Falls Deeper Into Gravity Field Temperature Rises Note Loss of Energy Results in a) Temperature Rise b) Radius Decrease

But Wait A Minute Isnt the Sun Stable? The Sun has been remarkably stable for 4 billion years as evidenced by geological records. This collapse is the process by which the Sun coalesced. But then it stopped. Why? The Sun collapsed until a new source of energy offset the losses to radiation. NUCLEAR FUSION --- ITS BURNING HYDROGEN As long as it burns H at this rate, it will be stable.

Fusion Increases with T As T in core of Sun increases so does energy production Sun shrank steadily, with T rising until, about 10 million years after it started to form, it reached its current size There is a VERY fast increase in nuclear energy production above 1,000,000K. At 15,000,000K in the core nuclear power generated finally balanced the luminosity from the surface. Thats the equilibrium we are still in.

The Nuclear Core Envelope 1 Million K core 15x106K Photosphere 5000K At Surface Cosmic Composition

H He O C N

hydrogen helium oxygen carbon nitrogen 89% by number 11% 0.1% 0.06%

0.015% Pretty much the composition of the entire universe. Sun and Jupiter have this composition Earth does not. Fusion vs. Fission Fusion: Atoms unite and release energy (Fuse) New atom must be no heavier than iron z=26 Fission: Heavy atoms split to release energy

Initial atom must be heavier than iron WWII Nukes were fission bombs made of U and Pu Sun works on FUSION of H into He Proton-Proton Chain Bottom Line: H+H+H+H He H 1 +1H 1 1H 2 + e + + 1

H2 +1H1 2He3 + 1 2 He3 +2He3 2He4 + 1H1 + 1H1 5x106 < T < 2x107K

CNO Cycle 6 C12 +1H1 7N13 + 7 6 7

C13 +1H1 7N14 + N14 +1H1 8O15 + 8 7 N13 6C13 + e+ + O15 7N15 + e+ +

2x107 < T < 108K N15 +1H1 6C12 + 2He4 Net: 1H1 +1H1 + 1H1 +1H1 2He4 + 2e+ + 4 +2 hydrogen -> helium + energy Triple- Reaction 2

4 He4 +2He4 4Be8 + T < 108K Be8 +2He4 6C12 + Must be very dense for this to work Be8 decays back into helium very quickly unless struck by another He4

Net: 2He4 +2He4 + 2He4 +2He4 6C12 + 2 helium -> carbon + energy Too low density in Big Bang Solar Schematic Sunspots

Seen by Ancient Persians Groups of Sunspots Solar Corona Visible in Eclipse The Sun Viewed in X-rays X-ray Movie X-ray Loops

Magnetic Structure Dynamic Structure Solar Turbulence Differential Rotation Rotates in 25 days at Equator 28 days Mid Latitude 30 days Poles

Rapidly Twists Up

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