Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body: An Orientation Introduction: Anatomy: the study of structure and shape of the body (and its parts) and their relationship to each other. Physiology: (physio= nature; ology= study of) the study of the function of the body and its parts.

These compliment each other and allow us to study the bodys structures and functions. Levels of Structural Organization (of Humans): Atoms (building blocks of matter; combine to make molecules) Cells (smallest unit of life) Tissues (groups

of similar cells performing a common function) Organs (groups of tissues working together for a specific function) Organ Systems (groups of organs working collectively for a greater good)

Organism Levels of Structural Organization (of Humans): 1366&bih=613&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=P4lM9cOAzch8NM:&imgrefurl= Organ System Overview: Integumentary System: skin; provides protection, waterproofing, and cushioning; excretes waste; regulates temperate; contains temperature, pain & pressure receptors. 1366&bih=613&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsbl&tbnid=hfmWyx2vzLbDKM:&imgrefurl=http://www.americanskin.o rg/ Skeletal System: bones, cartilage, ligaments, & joints. Provides framework and supports body; with muscles, allows movement; protects

organs; forms blood cells; stores minerals Muscular System: Muscles. Movement and transport substances throughout the body

Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors. Respond to stimuli and activate muscles or glands. Endocrine System:

Glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, thymus, ovaries, testes, & pineal) and hormones. Regulate bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Cardiovascular

System: Heart & blood vessels. Transports fluid, oxygen, and waste throughout the body. Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes, Lymph Vessels, Tonsils, Thymus, Appendix, & Spleen. Clean blood of

impurities; help with immunity. Respiratory System: Nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi lungs. Functions in gas exchange. Digestive System: Mouth esophagus stomach small then large intestine rectum; accessory organs include liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Functions in

breaking down food into nutrients for the absorption into the blood. Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra. Functions in filtering nitrogenous waste from the blood (creates urea), maintains bodys

water and salt balance, regulates bodys blood pressure, and acid-base balance. Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring. Male includes testis, penis, and duct system; female

includes ovaries, uterus, and duct system. Maintaining Life: There are 8 characteristics that maintain, or enable, life. Maintaining boundaries: separation of life from outside environment (from a cell membrane to skin) Movement:

internal & external Responsiveness: sense the environment and react to it accordingly Digestion: break down food Metabolism: all chemical reactions within the body: decomposition (break down) and

synthesis (build up) Excretion: removal of wastes Reproduction: produce more like self (this can occur on the cellular level for growth, maintenance, and repair) Growth: increase in size

Survival Needs: There are 5 survival needs, or requirements for life: Nutrients: food Oxygen: needed to break down food (releases energy from food) Water: transports, regulates, & needed for chemical reactions (most abundant chemical in our bodies)

Normal Body Temperature: determines rate of reactions Atmospheric Pressure: force exerted on body by weight of air (enables gas exchange) Homeostasis: Homeostasis is the bodys ability to maintain a stable internal environment (temp.,

bp). Homeo = same; stasis = stand still There are 2 types of control: Negative & Positive Feedback Mechanisms. The Language of Anatomy:

Superior: above, or toward the head (cranial) Medial: Lateral: middle outer side of Inferior: body Proximal: close to the origin point of

attachment to a limb Ventral: Distal: below, or away from the head (caudal) front of the body (anterior) Dorsal: backside (behind) of the body (posterior)

farther from the point of attachment to a limb Superficial: surface Body Planes & Sections: Sagittal Section: cutting the body lengthwise Median

(midsagittal) Section: sagittal section that is equal Frontal Section: cutting the body into anterior and posterior parts. Transverse Section: (a.k.a. cross section)

cutting the body into superior & inferior sections Median: Frontal: Transverse: Body Cavities: Dorsal Cavity:

Cranial Cavity: skull & brain Spinal Cavity: spinal cord & backbone (vertebrate) Ventral Cavity: Thoracic Cavity: upper part of trunk Abdominopelvic Cavity: lower trunk The ventral cavity is separated by the diaphragm (thin muscle). Ventral Cavity:Abdominopelvic

Cavity: Thoracic Cavity: The mediastinum separates the left & right sides (separates the lungs). The viscera: lungs, heart, espohagus, trachea, & thymus gland (all except lungs are w/in

mediastinum). This is from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor. Contains 2 cavities: Abdominal Cavity (below diaphragm): viscera: stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, gall bladder, and small & large

intestines (majority) Pelvic Cavity (below diaphragm): viscera: large intestines (lower end), bladder, & reproductive organs Other Body Cavities: Nasal Cavity: nose, nasal septum &

sinuses (frontal & sphenoidal) ral & Digestive Cavities: eeth & tongue Orbital Cavities: eyes, eye muscles, & nerves Middle Ear Cavities: middle ear bones

This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran, Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL. Used with her personal permission, adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting, Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.

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