Alternative theories of Small State Studies Mt Szalai 11.11.2015. The main assumptions of mainstream SSS Size determines foreign policy Lack of resources creates vulnerabilities and weakness
Alliancepolicy A/P/D Lack of resources Weakness Participation in international organizations
1. Basic ideas of Social Constructivism 2. How can we apply Social Constructivism on Small States? 3. Fundamental writings 4. Five conclusions 1.1. The context of the rise of social constructivism 1980s: many social theories have been falsified States do not act like they supposed to
1990s: emergence of new theories 1992: Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics 1999: Social Theory of International Politics 1.2. Anarchy is what states make of it 1. Introduction: the neo-neo debate 2. How did the self-help system evolve from anarchy? 3. How can the self-help system be altered into a more
cooperative system? The Neo-Neo debate Main question of the neo-neo debate: what are the main determinants of foreign policy? The structure or institutions? Absolute or relative gains? But the starting point is the same Rational logic
Connection between anarchy and self-help system The Neo-Neo debate The anarchic nature of the interstate necessarily lead to a self-help structure It is a question of inter-social processes system
does not Anarchy can lead to the self-help system but to other systems as well The nature of Anarchy States react differently to other actors who they consider friends or foes Anarchy cannot explain that
Reason: structure of identity and interests Actors do not have a specific and determined set of interests Interests can only be interpreted in a given social context Actors acquire identities relatively stable, role-specific understandings and expectations about self by participating in such collective meanings State, identity and interest State
Identit y Interest s 2. How did the self-help system evolve from anarchy?
1.2. How did the self-help system evolve from anarchy? Institutions: manifestation of a stable set of identities and defined interests Self-help is an institution which evolved from the state of anarchy in order to maintain the actors security Two different perceptions of security Competitive Individual This is the break between neoliberalism and neorealism
1.2. Emergence of the self-help system Interests and institutions are socially constructed structures which are formed through interactions we have to see what was before that State and government Urge to survive
1.2. Emergence of the self-help system Two states (Ego and Alter) interact with each other Ego acts, alter defines the act of ego, alter acts accordingly The role of first impression is crucial Self-help security systems evolve from cycles of interaction in which each party acts in ways that the other feels are threating to the self, creating the expectations that the other is not to be trusted () the self is forced to mirror such behaviour
1.2. Emergence of the self-help system Why did the self-help system evolved? Because of predition An aggressive state appears. How do others behave? the acts of Alter are determined by previously constructed interests and identities
1.2. Emergence of the self-help system The acts of Alter depend on The presence of collective identity The presence and extent of the feeling of collective threat The timing For example USA and Europe: collective identity GCC: individual
3. How does a state behave? 1.3. How does a state behave? Sovereignty Security Foreign
Policy International System 1.3. How does a state behave? Identity Socialization
Behaviour Interests 2. How can we use SC in small state studies? Small states act as weak because they have been socialized this way If sovereignty derives from social relations and not power, small states does not have
a security deficit Nothing is significant by itself, only in a given social context Significant facts and factors are significant because we think they are 3. Fundamental writings Dan Reiter (2006): Learning, Realism, and Alliances: The Weight of the Shadow of the Past. Christine Ingebritsen (2006): Norm Entrepreneurs: Scandinavias Role in World Politics. Alan Chong (2010): Small state soft power strategies: virtual enlargement in the cases
of the Vatican City State and Singapore. 3.1. Dan Reiter (2006): Learning, Realism, and Alliances: The Weight of the Shadow of the Past Alliance-policy Realism versus the theory of learning Facing unexpected situations, decision-makers tend to rely on personal, institutional and socio-psychological experiences H1: Small states learn from their own history
H2: Small states learn from others mistakes as well H3: Small states prefer alliance-policy according to their geopolitical situation, the nature of the direct threat, the size of the ally, etc. The results H1: 111/127 H2: 89/127 H3: less than half
An enlightened version of realism, then, would recognize the important role decisionmakers beliefs play in forming foreign policy and would acknowledge that exploring the origins of these beliefs can substantially improve our understanding of world politics 3.2. Norm Entrepreneurs: Scandinavias Role in World Politics Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland Common wisdom: the powerful do as they will, and the weak do as they must Norms in IR Norm emergence
development (1987, Brutland report) 1970s: Helsinki Process 1990s: Oslo Process Global welfare Welfare state Nowadays: basic
income Alan Chong (2010): Small state soft power strategies: virtual enlargement in the cases of the Vatican City State and Singapore. The art of survival for small states includes attempts to enlarge their importance to the international community Smallness, being geographically limited, can be psychologically tactical in disarming major powers suspicions of the small states motives
Three ways for virtual enlargement promotion of national political economy potential: demonstrable competence in the management of economic activities affecting the wealth of a government and its population. models of good governance: convincing projection of a model society and organizational showcase abroad for objectives of national interest diplomatic mediation: stems from the moral capital derived from the domestic reputation and international record of small state
aspiration towards the pacific settlement of interstate disputes through the building of trust 4. Five conclusions 1. Small states have wider leverage than previously expected 2. Societal factors may outsmart the strong 3. Small states can be highly innovative there are lessons to be learnt 4. Small states can affect political outcomes in international relations 5. Moral balance of power
CRM Migration Challenges. Lack of a guided process and easy to run automation tools to migrate to Dynamics 365 Customer Engagement Online . No easy mechanism to identify the unsupported customizations which might hinder the migration process
The view of two natures became orthodoxy. Today it is the mainstream position in Catholicism, Protestantism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The official position of these churches is that all the other groups, with their different views about Jesus, are heretics,...
The teacher asks the class what are clouds made of, and these are some of the students' answers. Clouds are made of only water vapor in the atmosphere. Clouds are made from smoke. Clouds are made of condensed water on...
When comparing molecules that have dipole-dipole forces, use FONClBrISCH to help you determine which one has a greater difference in E n. to see which is more polar. Don't just say "like dissolves like" when determining solubility of one substance...
Spontaneous, easy to get, but cost can be high. RR buys $200,000 of materials net, on terms of 1/10, net 30 but pays on Day 40. ... Think of the extra $2,020 as a financing cost similar to the interest...
BMJ, Pulse, GP. NESG. Locum Organiser. Approach the practice directly. How to get a job? Don't panic. Competing with established GPs. Judged from first contact. Prepare an appropriate CV. Informal and/or formal interview. Don't forget this is a 2 way...
-Chlorophyll in plants comes in different kinds : chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Both absorb light well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum but not in the green region. Leaves reflect the green light until temperatures...
Fall 2010. Program Quality Improvement Report 2010-2011. Section I: Program Learning Outcomes. Program outcome 1: Graduates demonstrate foundational knowledge of basic business concepts that will prepare each graduate for success in business upon graduation.
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!