Aim: How should the medieval Church be remembered?

Aim: How should the medieval Church be remembered? Do Now: Listen to the Gregorian chant. Write down: 1. Who is this song written for? 2. What is its purpose? 3. How do you feel listening to this song? 4. Write down at least 1 question for the writer/performer. Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, during whose papacy (590604) it was collected and codified. Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter. It is sung entirely in

Latin. 325 CE Roman Emperor Constantine called the Council of Nicaea. It decided official Church doctrine including the Holy Trinity and the date of Easter. Clergy include any church official. Laymen are not officials of the church.

Who is the Pope? The Pope is the leader of the Catholic Church. Today, Pope Francis I (Jorge Mario Bergoglio from Argentina), is the 266th Pope. He was elected by the Cardinals, who let the world know by releasing white smoke from the Vatican. The new Pope chose his name because St. Francis of Assissi devoted his life to helping the poor. The Role of the Medieval Church A) The medieval Church controlled the most land in Western Europe. B) Everyone was forced to pay a tithe to the Church; 10% of their income. C) The Church guided your life from birth to death. D) The Church fought for power with feudal Kings and the Holy Roman Emperor (secular vs.

ecclesiastical power). Until 1123, some priests were allowed to be married and have children. After 1123, all priests and members of the clergy had to take a vow of celibacy. *Recall that Eastern Orthodox clergy are allowed to marry. Medieval Christian Philosophers St. Augustine (354 430) Wrote the City of God. Influenced

by Plato. Argued that time is an illusion; God exists outside of time. Used the allegory of 2 cities (earthly vs. city of God) to differentiate those with original sin and who refuse Gods love, and those who have faith and who seek Gods love. Since love grows within you, so beauty grows. For love is the beauty of the

soul. St. Augustine Thomas Aquinas (1225 1274) Aquinas argued Aristotles "unmoved mover," a supreme being whose existence at the beginning of time set the universe in motion, was the same as the Christians God, who created all things. To one who has faith, no explanation is necessary. To one without faith, no explanation is possible. Thomas Aquinas

Medieval Christian Philosophers Continued Peter Abelard (1079 1142) Influenced by Aristotle. The Church accepted his theory of limbo; instead of going to hell, unbaptised babies will go to an intermediary place between hell and heaven. The key to wisdom is this - constant and frequent questioning, for by doubting we are led to question and by questioning we arrive at the truth. Peter Abelard Abelard was the man who fell in love with Heloise!

IV Christian Monasticism A) Monks and nuns lived in monasteries (isolated communities). B) St. Benedict (480 547 CE) created the first monastic rule; it was a guideline for how monks and nuns should live their monastic life. a monk consider himself as a poor and unworthy workman He should have absolutely not anything: neither a book, nor tablets, nor a pen-nothing at all. - St. Benedict 530 CE

Left: Eastern Orthodox monks. Right: Franciscan nun. Medieval Monastery, Armenia The Inquisition A) The Inquisition was an official Church investigation to root out heretics (those who act against the Church) and blasphemers (those who speak against the Church). It began in 1230 CE. B) The accused had to testify without legal counsel. If they did not confess, torture could then be used. C)The Spanish Inquisition began in 1492 under Queen Isabella. Auto de Fay: a public ceremony

during which the sentences upon those brought before the Spanish Inquisition were read and after which the sentences were executed by the secular authorities (non-clergy). The last official execution under the Spanish Inquisition was in 1826! D) The Catholic Church officially abolished the use of torture in 1917. The Inquisition Continued Medieval Church Art A) Most Medieval art was religious B) Unlike Classical art of Greece and Rome that was realistic, Medieval

art was 2-D and abstract. This was due to the belief that our focus should be on god, not on the body. Classical Greek sculpture 5th Century BCE Unknown Artist, Florence, 1200 Medieval Churches A) Early Medieval Churches in the Romanesque style, featuring Roman style arches.

B) Later churches were built in the Gothic style. They were taller, lighter, had stained glass windows and flying buttresses (formed an arch with the wall it supports). Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Spain 13 Notre Dame, a Gothic Church, Paris Notre Dame Interior

Notre Dame Exterior Notre Dame Stained Glass Window Illuminated Manuscripts Medieval monks had to handwrite and illustrate (illuminate) books including the Bible. By the high Middle Ages, the making of a manuscript was often divided among four distinct craftsman: the parchment maker, the scribe, the illuminator, and the bookbinder.

Conflict between the Church & the Holy Roman Empire 962 CE the Pope crowned Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, reviving the Holy Roman Empire. 1073 CE Gregory VII became the new Pope. Part of his Church reforms included the ban of lay investiture. The Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did not approve, and led to Pope Gregory VII excommunicating him. Faced with revolts by his princes, Henry IV was forced to make peace. Winter 1077 he begged for forgiveness. As a Pope, Gregory had to give it. Henry IV then subdued his princes, led his army to Rome and forced Gregory VII into exile. 1122 both sides accepted the Concordat of Worms: the Church now had sole power to elect and invest bishops with the symbols of spiritual authority, but the Emperor could invest bishops with symbols of lay authority.

Excommunication: The Church cuts off your communication from God by banning you from the Church and the sacraments Conflict between the Church & the H.R.E. Continued Lay Investiture is when an Emperor (a layman; not a member of the clergy) invested (presented) new bishops with the ring and staff (symbols of spiritual power).

Wretchedly with bare feet [Henry] continued for three days to stand before the gate of the castle. Nor did he desist from imploring with many tears until he had moved all present to such pity and depth of compassion Finally, won by the persistence of his suit we received him into the Holy Mother Church. The Great Schism 1309 Pope Clement V moved Papal Palace to Avignon, France. conflict 1377 Pope Gregory XI returned Papal Palace to Rome. HOWEVER, the Cardinals elected a

different Pope and placed him at Avignon. 1377 1417 the Church had 2 or 3 Popes at the same time! 1414 Council of Constance permanent return of Papal Palace to Rome. Papal Palace Avignon Key Vocabulary Archbishop Monk Auto de Fe

Nun Bishop Peter Abelard Cardinal Pope Concordat of Worms

Pope Gregory VII Council of Nicaea Priest Dominicans Romanesque Church Gothic Church

Rule of St. Benedict Gregorian Chant St. Augustine Heretics Thomas Aquinas Illuminated Text Inquisition

King Henry IV Lay Investiture Monastery

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