African Americans in the Progressive Era - PBworks
African Americans in the Progressive Era Easily the most striking thing in the history of the America Negro since 1876 is the ascendancy of Mr. Booker T. Washington. W.E.B. Du Bois No exaggeration. At this point in time, Washington yielded more power than any other AfricanAmerican between Douglass and King.
02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 2 Booker T. Washington 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 3
Born April 5, 1856 Burroughs farm at the community of Hales Ford, VA Died November 14, 1915 In Tuskegee, after collapsing in New York City and being brought home.
02/07/20 Booker T. Washington was a slave until he was 9 years old (slave mother, white father). Worked in salt furnaces and coal mines in WV for several years Educated at Hampton Institute and Wayland Seminary. 1881 became the first leader of Tuskegee Institute. 1900 organized the National Negro Business League
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 4 Up From Slavery: An Autobiography (1901) 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 5
Booker T. Washington's house at Tuskegee University 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 6 the importance of hard work, savings, home equity, and family, maintaining that while political and social equality for blacks was important, it was not as essential as uplifting their own communities,
the top priority before going on to other goals. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 7 Gave The Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Speech September 11, 1895 Washington began with a call to the blacks, to join the
world of work. He believed that African-Americans should concentrate all their energies on industrial education, and accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South. W.E.B. Du Bois gave it the title of "Atlanta Compromise" Du Buois believed it was insufficiently committed to the pursuit of social and political equality for Blacks. 02/07/20
Go slow accommodation. Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8 He addressed the inequality between commercial legality and social acceptance, proclaiming that "The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera house." However, Washington also
endorsed segregation by claiming that blacks and whites could exist as separate fingers of a hand. Atlanta Address of 1895 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 9 24:31 02/07/20
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 10 At the bottom of education, at the bottom of politics, even at the bottom of religion, there must be for our race economic independence. 02/07/20
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 11 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 12 Tuskegees Most Famous 02/07/20
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 13 W.E.B. Du Bois 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 14
Born February 23, 1868 Died August 27, 1963 Great Barrington, MA Ghana (West Africa) Education
Wilberforce College (Ohio) University of Pennsylvania 02/07/20 Philadelphia Negro Project Atlanta University (now Clark Atlanta)
First African American to earn Ph.D. at Harvard. Studied at the University of Berlin Established sociology department Father of Pan-Africanism Free template from www.brainybetty.com
15 Of Washington Acknowledged Washingtons influence but criticized his preaching a gospel of work and money to such an extent as apparently almost completely to overshadow the higher aims of life. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
16 Political and social equality were a prerequisite for economic independence. The Talented Tenth. The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
17 The Talented Tenth (Du Bois, 1903) Du Bois envisioned a focused effort to educated a portion of the United States black populationas a way to lift up the standing of black Americans. How then shall the leaders of a struggling people be trained and the hands of the risen few strengthened? There can be but one answer: The best and most capable of their youth must be schooled in the colleges and universities of the land. We will not quarrel as to just what the university of the
Negro should teach or how it should teach it I willingly admit that each soul and each race-soul needs its own peculiar curriculum. But this is true: A university is a human invention for the transmission of knowledge and culture from generation to generation, through the training of quick minds and pure hearts, and for this work no other human invention will suffice, not even trade and industrial schools. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 18
The Souls of Black Folk (1903) 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 19 It is much more difficult in theory than actuality to say the last goodbye to ones loved ones and friends and to all the familiar things of this life. I am going to take a long, deep and endless sleep. This is not a punishment but a privilege to which I have looked
forward for years. I have loved my work. I have loved people and my play but always I have been uplifted by the thought that what I have done well will live long and justify my life: that what I have done ill or never finished can now be handed on to others for endless days to be finished, perhaps better than I could have done. And that peace will be my applause. One thing alone I charge you as you live and believe in life. Always human beings will live and progress to greater, broader and fuller life. The only possible death is to lose belief in the truth simply because the great end comes slowly; because time is long. Goodbye.
02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 20 The World of Jim Crow The Niagara Movement 1905 1908
Civil Rights group. Organized by W.E.B. DuBois and William Monroe Trotter. After being denied admittance to hotels in Buffalo, New York, the group of 29 business owners, teachers, and clergy who comprised the initial meeting gathered at Niagara Falls, from which the groups name derives. Considered the precursor to the NAACP. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
23 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 24 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 25
02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 26 The Birth of the NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
28 Founded Feb. 12. 1909 It is the nation's oldest, largest and most widely recognized grassrootsbased civil rights organization. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 29
The NAACP was formed partly in response to the continuing horrific practice of lynching and the 1908 race riot in Springfield, Illinois. Appalled at the violence that was committed against blacks, a group of white liberals issued a call for a meeting to discuss racial justice. Mary White Ovington Descendant of abolitionists
Oswald Garrison Villard Descendant of abolitionists William English Walling Dr. Henry Moscowitz 02/07/20 Some 60 people, seven of whom were African American (including W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and Mary Church Terrell), signed the call, which was released on the
centennial of Lincoln's birth. Free template from www.brainybetty.com 30 The Founders Mary White Ovington 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 32
Oswald Garrison Villard 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 33 William English Walling 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
34 Dr. Henry Moscowitz 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 35 Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois 02/07/20
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 36 Founding Members
02/07/20 Arthur and Joel Spingarn Josephine Ruffin
Mary Talbert Inez Milholland Jane Addams Florence Kelley Sophonisba Breckinridge John Haynes Holmes Mary McLeod Bethune George Henry White Charles Edward Russell John Dewey William Dean Howells Lillian Wald Charles Darrow Lincoln Steffens
Ray Stannard Baker Fanny Garrison Villard Free template from www.brainybetty.com 37 The NAACP's stated goal was to secure for all people the rights guaranteed in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution, which promised an end to slavery, the equal protection of the law, and universal adult male suffrage,
respectively. 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 38 The Magazine 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 39
Tuscaloosa Chapter President Deloris Warrick 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 40 Alabama Chapter President Edward Vaughn 02/07/20
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 41 Current Chairman Julian Bond 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 42
Marcus Garvey MAN KNOW THYSELF For man to know himself is for him to feel that for him there is no human master. For him Nature is his servant, and whatsoever he wills in Nature, that shall be his reward. If he wills to be a pigmy, a serf or a slave, that shall he be. If he wills to be a real man in possession of the things... 02/07/20
Free template from www.brainybetty.com 44 He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in August 1914 as a means of uniting all of Africa and its diaspora into "one grand racial hierarchy." Came to the United States in March 1916 after corresponding with Booker T. Washington Purpose was to raise funds for a school like Tuskegee in Jamacia.
02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 45 Garveyism The fundamental focus is the complete, total and never ending redemption of the continent of Africa by people of African ancestry, at home and abroad.
It is rooted in one basic idea: "whatsoever things common to man that man has done, man can do". Therefore, Africa can become as glorious and profoundly advanced in the scientific and technological realm as any, when Africans will it to be. The tenets of Garveyism are: 1. race first
2. self-reliance 3. nationhood 02/07/20 The ultimate goal of Garveyism is a United States of Africa which will protect the interests of Black people worldwide. Free template from www.brainybetty.com 46
02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 47 A Back to Africa Movement Sought to develop Liberia. The Liberia Program launched in 1920 abandoned in the mid-1920s after much opposition from European powers with interests in Liberia. Didnt want to take all blacks back to Africa.
"We do not want all the Negroes in Africa. Some are no good here, and naturally will be no good there." 02/07/20 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 48 Its Demise
02/07/20 November 1919. Some say a witch hunt by the Bureau of Investigation. The accusation centered on the fact that the corporation had not yet purchased a ship with the name "Phyllis Wheatley". Although one was pictured with that name emblazoned on its bow on one of the company's stock brochures, it had not actually been purchased by the BSL and still had the name
Orion. When the trial ended on 23 June 1923, Garvey had been sentenced to five years in prison. After numerous attempts at appeal were unsuccessful, he was taken into custody and began serving his sentence at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary on 8 February 1925. Sentence was eventually commuted by President Coolidge. Upon release in November 1927, he was deported to Jamaica. Free template from www.brainybetty.com 49 02/07/20
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