Adjectives

Adjectives Adjectives : Adjectives tell us what something is like. They are the same in singular and plural. They can be used before a noun or after a linking verb (appear, be, become, get, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste). She's got long hair. These roses smell nice. Adjectives can be factual (big, square, blue etc) or express an opinion (nice, beautiful etc).

Order of Adjectives When two or more adjectives are used before a noun, they normally go in the following order: Opinion Fact Adjectives adjectives size age shape colour origin material used for/ be about noun It's a lovely small old square brown Chinese wooden writing table. When there are two or more adjectives of the same type, the more general adjective goes before the more specific. a kind, gentle lady

Afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, content, ill, adrift, afloat, glad, upset etc are never followed by a noun. The students were ashamed of what they had done. (not: the ashamed student) Present and past participles can be used as adjectives. The film was amusing. We were amused. an infuriating woman ( she made us furious) an infuriated woman ( something had made her furious) Chief, eldest, former, indoor, inner, main, only, outdoor, outer, principle, upper ,sheer, utter can only be used before nouns. This is an indoor swimming pool. Put the adjectives into the correct place, then identify what kind of adjectives 1. I are. love ice-cream. (strawberry, Italian, they

tasty) ... I love tasty Italian strawberry ice-cream.... (opinion, origin, material) 2. They have a sofa. (leather, navy-blue, modern) They have a modern navy-blue leather sofa. (Opinion, colour, 3. He lovesmaterial) his bike. (new, red, expensive, He loves hismountain) expensive new red mountain (opinion, age, calour, used for) bike. 4. She has a voice. (lovely, singing, she haspure) a lovely pure singing voice (Opinion,opinion,used 5. He's for) just sold that suit to a woman. (beautiful, slim, tall, French, young) Hes just sold that suit to a beautiful tall young slim (Opinion, size age,

French woman. 6. She bought curtains. (brown and orange, dining-room) She bought brown and orange dining-room curtains. (Colour, be about) 7. She bakes cakes. (chocolate, delicious, birthday, She bakesround) delicious round chocolate (Opinion, size, material, birthday cakes. 8. Junebe has a puppy. (tiny, brown, about) fluffy) . a tiny fluffy brown puppy. June has ( size, shape, 9. Shecolour) was given a dress. (black, spectacular, She was evening)

given a spectacular black Italian Italian, evening dress. (Opinion, colour, origin, used 10. He bought a for) racquet. (tennis, graphite, new) .He bought a new graphite tennis (age, material, used racquet. for)a grandfather. (French, ninety-year11. He has He has a wonderful ninety-year-old French old, wonderful) (Opinion, age, grandfather. 12. We watched a film. (boring, German, black and white) We watched a boring black and white, (Opinion, colour, German film. origin) 13. She wears lipstick. (pink, horrible, glossy) She wears horrible glossy pink lipstick.

(Opinion, colour, colour) 14. We used to have a teacher. (strict, old, We used to have a strict old American biology biology, American) (Opinion, age, origin, be teacher. about) 15. It was a dress. (wedding, antique, cream, stunning, lace) It was a stunning antique cream lace wedding dress. (Opinion, age, colour, material, used for) 16. Yesterday we went to the club. (huge, sports, modern) Yesterday we went to the huge modern sports club. (Size, age, used for) 17. Mary has a job. (sales, demanding, new)

Mary has a demanding new sales job. (Opinion, age, be about) 18. The house has a kitchen, (large, wellThe housewhite, has a well-equipped large modern white equipped, modern) (Opinion,size, age, kitchen. colour) 19. He has a bag. (black, big, school) He has a big black school (Size colour, used bag. for) 20. I have rarely seen such a film. (American, well-made, detective) I have rarely seen such a well-made American detective film. (Opinion,origin,be about) Nouns of material, purpose or substance can be used as adjectives.

(a summer suit, a television series) Certain adjectives can be used metaphorically: silky skin (soft and smooth, like silk), but a silk dress (a dress made of silk), stony look (disapproving look) but a stone wall (a wall made of stone), golden eagle (a bird with gold-brown feathers) but a gold ring (a ring made of gold), feathery snowflakes (soft and delicate like feathers) but a feather pillow (a pillow containing feathers), metallic paint (paint which looks like metal) but metal-rimmed glasses (glasses with a rim made of metal),

leathery meat (too firm and difficult to cut) but a leather coat (a coat made of leather), a leaden sky (dark sky; the colour of lead) but lead pipes (pipes made of lead), a steely character (a hard, strong, unkind character) but a steel-plated tank (a vehicle with a steel covering). Underline the correct adjective 1. A gold / golden eagle glided gracefully across the sky. 2. She ruined her silk/silky suit by washing it. 3. We had to climb over a low stone/stony wall. 4. He approached the task with steel/steely determination. 5. This soap will leave your skin feeling silk/silky and soft. 6. Leathery / Leather coats never seem to go out of fashion. 7. This plant has soft feather/feathery leaves. 8. We spotted the metal/metallic blue car speeding into the tunnel ahead. 9. The manager's stone/stony expression showed that all was not

well. 10. She was given an expensive gold / golden watch for her twenty first birthday. Put the adjectives in the correct order Rent our house in Italy for your holidays! It's a 1) beautiful large stone... (stone, beautiful, large) villa on spectacular views of the sea. You will love the 2) ........................................... (old, huge, marble) swimming pool huge old marble we have in our 3) ............................................. (mountainside, terraced, colourful) garden. Colorful terraced mountainside There is a 4) ............................................... (sunny, stone, rectangular) patio

Sunny rectangular stone At the front with many 5) .............................................. (terracotta, flowerfilled, circular) pots. Circular terracotta flower-filled The house has five 6) .............................................. (elegant, white, medium-sized) bedrooms and three marble bathrooms Elegant medium-sized white each with its own 7) ..................................................... (antique, little, wonderful) wall-painting. Wonderful little antique The living room has a 8) ....................................................... (cool, lovely, marble) floor Lovely cool marble with 9) .............................................. (expensive, Persian, antique) rugs

and comfortable sofas. Expensive antique Parsian You can eat in the many 10) .............................................. (Italian, excellent, traditional) restaurants nearby and enjoy using the facilities in the new sports centre. Excellent traditional Italian Compound adjectives are formed with: present participles, a smart-looking man, a sharp-cutting knife past participles, a much-liked colleague, a well-known singer cardinal numbers + nouns, a one-month holiday, a seventy-mile speed limit, a three-year degree

prefixes and suffixes, anti-social behaviour, a part-time worker badly, III, poorly, well + past participle, a badly-treated animal, a well-established firm Make compound adjectives to describe the following. 1. A student who has been taught well. a well-taught student.... 2 A letter that you have been waiting for for a long time. ....................................... 3 A person who loves having fun. ......................................................... 4 A garden which is tended perfectly. ......................................................... 5 A life that is free of trouble. ............................................................. 6 A visit that was not timed well. ...............................................................

7 An action that is not advisable. ............................................................. 8 A journey of seven days. ............................................................. Most common adjectives do not have a particular ending. However there are certain common endings for adjectives which are formed from nouns and verbs. These are: -able (predictable),

-ar (polar), -ary (reactionary), -ate (passionate), -ial (racial), -ent (dependent), -esque (grotesque), -ful (remorseful), -ian (Albanian), -ible (sensible), -ic (dramatic), - ical (economical), -ious (vicious),

-ish (selfish), -ist (racist), -ive (reactive), -less (mindless), -like (man-like), -ly (warmly), -ory (celebratory), -ous (glamorous), -some (lonesome), -y (sunny -al (practical),

-ant (observant), The most common prefixes used with adjectives are: a- (asocial), ab- (abnormal), anti- (anticlockwise), dis- (discontent), hyper- (hypersensitive), il- (legal), im- (immortal), in- (incredible), ir- (irrational), mal- (malnourished), non- (non-violent), over-(overactive), pre- ( pre-packed ),

pro- (pro-industry), sub- (subterranean), super- (superconfident), un- (unappreciated), under- (underfed). Some adjectives can be used with the as nouns to talk about groups of people in general. These are: the blind, the deaf, the disabled, the elderly, the homeless, the hungry, the living, the middle-aged, the old, the poor, the rich, the sick, the strong, the unemployed, the weak etc. Disabled people need help and understanding.

The disabled need help and understanding, (refers to disabled people in general). The disabled people over there are training for the "Paraplegic Olympics. " (refers to a specific group of disabled people.) Fill in "the" where necessary. 1 He takes ...the... disabled children in his area riding on Friday afternoons. 2 When the government decided to raise taxes ........... rich people were unhappy and ........... Poor were devastated. Rich people --- The poor 3 Christmas can be a very sad time for........... lonely people and ........... homeless. Lonely people --- The homeless 4 We were relieved to hear that all........... injured were recovered from the wreckage before the plane exploded. the injured

5 ........... survivors carried ........... injured people to the ambulances. The survivors --the injured people 6 ........... deaf communicate by using sign language. The deaf Adverbs Adverbs normally describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs or whole sentences. He swims very fast. They tell us how (adverbs of manner - carefully), where (adverbs of place - there),

when (adverbs of time - tomorrow), how often (adverbs of frequency - always), or how much (adverbs of degree -completely) something happens. There are also relative adverbs (when, where, why) and sentence adverbs (maybe). Order of Adverbs

Adverbs can be used in front, mid or end position in a sentence. Front Mid End All afternoon they played quietly in the sitting room. Adverbs of manner can be used in any position; in front position they give emphasis. She opened the letter carefully. Carefully, she opened the letter. (emphasis) Adverbs of manner, place and time, when used in the same sentence, are usually placed as follows: subject + verb manner place time He was working quietly in the shed yesterday evening. Note that when there is a verb of movement, the order is place - manner - time. She went there by bus yesterday. Subject+verb place manner time Adverbs of time usually go in end position. They also go in front position to emphasise the time. subject + verb place manner time She goes to the gym on foot everyday.

Everyday she goes to the gym on foot. time subject+ verb place manner Adverbs of frequency (always, ever, occasionally, seldom, sometimes, usually etc) go after the auxiliary but before the main verb. She is always complaining. She always comes on time. In short answers, however, adverbs of frequency go before the auxiliary. Is he always so bad tempered?" 'Yes, he always is. Adverbs of degree (almost, hardly, quite etc) go before the words they modify. I've almost finished. Rewrite the sentences putting the adverbs in the correct place and making any other necessary changes. 1. Ferries sail to the island, (weekly, twice, only, during the winter ..Ferries sail to the island only twice weekly during the winter.... 2. He does the shopping. (reluctantly, at the supermarket, every week) ...... 3. She waited for her test results. (worriedly, in the hospital, all day) ............ 4. The clock strikes twelve times. (exactly, in the

hall, at midday) .................. 5. My mother used to read to me. (aloud, always, in the evenings) ......................... 6. The soldiers marched, (to the battlefield, bravely, yesterday) ....... 7. They go by car. (at weekends, to the leisure centre, sometimes) ........ 8. We arrived after a bumpy flight. (in Scotland, eventually, safely, extremely) ..................

9. The detective had been following the suspect . (all day, carefully) ................ 10. She walks. (quickly, every morning, to the station) ............. 11. The little boy ran. (excitedly, from the room, suddenly) ............... 12. She turned up looking annoyed. (at the party, unexpectedly, terribly) .................. 13. He studied. (hard, all morning, in his bedroom)

..................... 14 She looked at her reflection. (for ten minutes, carefully, in the mirror) ........................ 15 The children sit and play. (in their room, for hours, happily) .................. 16 He waved goodbye. (to his friend, at the airport, sadly) ....................... 17 The old boat sailed into the harbour. (slowly, through the water, this afternoon) ............................. 18 He ran to answer the phone. (down the stairs, to the hall, quickly) ....................... There are certain adverbs which have the same form as their adjectives. These are: best, better, big, cheap*, clean*, clear*, close*, cold, daily, dead, dear*, deep, direct, dirty, early, easy, extra, far, fast, fine*, free, further, hard, high, hourly, inside, kindly, last, late, long, loud*, low, monthly, past, quick*, quiet*, right, slow, straight, sure, thin*, thick, tight, weekly, well, wide, wrong, yearly etc.

She was an early riser. She woke up early. Dead right, dead sure, dead certain, dead tired, dead drunk. Take it easy, go easy, easy come easy go. fast asleep, hold fast, stick fast, Bow low, aim low, speak low at six oclock sharp, to sing sharp, turn sharp right / le Stop short, cut short, Sound asleep hold tight, packed tight wide open You guessed wrong(ly) The adverbs with an asterisk (*) can be found with -ly ending without a difference in meaning, but then they are more formal. / bought it cheap. (informal) ALSO I bought it cheaply. (formal)

Identify the highlighted words as adjectives or adverbs. This year's road race was the 1) best I've ever seen. The event is held 2) yearly and entrance to the main stand is 3) free. The race is always a 4) sure exhibition of exceptionally 5) fine driving. It was a 6) cold morning, and the teams had woken up 7) early to get their cars ready. They had trained 8) long and 9) hard to get here. The race was due to start at 11 o'clock, but started 10) late as the track wasn't 11) clean. There was a 12) loud roar when all the drivers started their cars, then they proceeded 13) quickly to the starting line. The gun went off, and the cars moved, as if in 14) slow motion. They drove 15) past the stands, and turned a 16) tight corner onto the main circuit. On the fifth lap one driver made a 17) wrong decision, and his car stopped 18) dead as it collided with a safety-barrier. The race was 19) fast , and all the drivers drove 20) well, but it was 21) clear from the beginning who was going to win: an Australian driver had taken the 22) inside lane and overtaken everybody

in only the second lap. Over the rest of the race he managed to distance himself 23) further from all the other cars. It was an 24) easy victory for him, and he continued round the track for an 25) extra lap to celebrate his win. Note that some words that end in ly are adject ot adverbs.For example; friendly,lovely,lonely eadly,cowardly,silly. hese wods cant be used as adverbs. He spoke to me in a very friendly way. Her singing was lovely. Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning deep = a long way down deeply = greatly full = exactly; very fully = completely late = not early lately = recently sure = certainly surely = without a doubt direct = by the shortest route directly =

immediately hard = intently; with effort hardly = scarcely near = close nearly = almost wide = off-target widely = to a large extent easy = gently and slowly easily = without difficulty y = gently and slowly easily = without diffi = at / to a high level y = fairly = without cost = after all others t = suddenly g = incorrectly highly = very much prettily = in a pretty freely = willingly lastly = finally shortly = soon wrongly = unjustly

ngly goes before verbs/past part. -wrong/wrongly go after v Underline the correct item. 1. I managed to get to New York easy / easily by flying there directly/direct. 2. She has been upset by his behaviour late / lately 3. Lately / Late the cost of living has been increasing; things generally are not nearly / near as cheap as they used to be. 4. It is believed that she was wrong / wrongly accused. 5. Laura is a very shy person who rare / rarely goes out and she does not mix free / freely with the other students.

6. She is highly/high regarded in the school as people can get on with her easily/easy. 7. I was not full/fully satisfied with the doctor as he had wrong/wrongly diagnosed my previous illness. 8. "Do you intend to leave shortly/short?" "I think so. I've nearly/near finished. 9. He'll surely/sure get a good grade; he's been studying very hardly/hard for the past year. 10. I was prettily/pretty embarrassed when I realised that I had hardly/hard enough money to pay the bill. 11.

He came last/lastly in the race and was pretty/ prettily disappointed by his performance. 12 .The train goes direct/directly to Edinburgh without stopping so it will probably be full/fully. 13. She free/freely admitted that she had not been working very hard/hardly recently. 14. It is wide/widely believed that politicians are people who can't be full/fully trusted. 15. Sure/Surely we must be near/nearly there by now. Quite (= fairly, to some degree) is used; in favourable comments. He's quite good at tennis. before a/an. He's quite a successful businessman.

with adverbs, some verbs and adjectives such as: alone, amazing, brilliant, certain, dead, dreadful, different, exhausted, extraordinary, false, horrible, impossible, perfect, ridiculous, right, sure, true, useless etc. It's quite certain he committed the crime. I'm quite sure he hasn't told us the truth. Rather is used: in unfavourable comments. She's rather bad at Maths. in favourable comments meaning "to an unusual degree". The meeting was rather interesting. with(it comparative degree. than we expected) was more interesting She's rather taller than me. before or after a/an.

It's a rather cold day. It's rather a cold day. Regular Comparative and Superlative Forms Adjectives of one syllable add -(e)r/-(e)st to form their comparative and superlative forms. Positive tall close Comparative taller (than) (than)

Superlative the tallest (of/in) the saddest (of/in) the closest (of/in) closer (than) sad sadder of two syllables ending in ly,-y,-w also add er / est sillier the silliest narrower narrowest Of two or more syllablestake more / most more modern the most modern more beautiful the most beautiful NOTE: clever, common, cruel, friendly,

gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quiet form their comparative and superlative forms with er/-est or more/most. Adverbs adverbs having the same forms as their adjectives add er/est. slow slowest slower the early drops y and adds ier/-iest early earliest earlier the

two syllables or compound adverbs take more/most.(compound adverbs are adjectives + -ly.) useful usefully more comfortably the most

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