Acids and Bases Acids An acid is a substance that: Tastes sour (dangerous) Oily feeling (dangerous) Reacts with metals and carbonates Corrosive Turns
blue litmus paper red All contain Hydrogen Anything beginning with H is acid except water (H2O) and peroxide (H2O2) Acids Caution: Wash with water if it gets on you Never smell Dont pour water into acid Dont taste!!
Common Acids Lactic Acid = Buttermilk Acetic Acid = Vinegar Citric Acid = Oranges Carbonic Acid = Cokes (carbonated water) Bases A base is a substance that:
Tastes bitter (dangerous) Slippery feeling (dangerous) Dissolves fats, oils, wool, & hair (lye) Turns red litmus paper blue Neutralizes acids to form salt and water. All have Hydroxides (OH) Bases Common Bases NH4OH = Ammonia NaOH = Lye
Mg(OH) = Milk of Magnesia, 2 Rolaids, Tums NaHCO = Sodium Bicarbonate: 3 Baking Soda pH stands for power of hydrogen or potential hydrogen The exact meaning of the "p" in "pH" is disputed, but according to the Carlsberg Foundation pH stands for "power of hydrogen". There are also other meanings, "p" stands for the German Potenz (meaning "power"), others
refer to French puissance (also meaning "power", based on the fact that the Carlsberg Laboratory was French-speaking). Another suggestion is that the "p" stands for the Latin terms pondus hydrogenii, potentia hydrogenii, or potential hydrogen pH Scale The pH scale is a range of values from 0-14 that tells the concentration of
Hydrogen ions in a solution. 0 = Most Acidic 7 = Neutral 14 = Most Basic pH scale Each number goes up by a power of 10. So a change of 1 unit is 10 times as much. 2 is 100 times greater. 3 is 1000 times greater and 6 is 1, 000,000 times greater. Indicators Litmus Paper
Acids: blue litmus paper RED Bases: red litmus paper BLUE Acids: pink/purple Neutrals: blue Bases: green
Phenolphthalein Bases turn pink Cabbage Juice Beet Juice Acids: red Bases: purple Chemical Indicators are a safe way to determine if a substance is acidic
or basic. Chemical indicator Litmus paper Phenolpht halein Bromothy mol blue Color in acid Color in base
Pink Blue Colorless Pink/ violet Yellow Blue Indicators change color with the pH Universal indicator is a solution which changes
colors due to the pH. You compare the color of the solution with the pH chart. Universal indicator is paper that has been covered in universal indicator solution. It will change colors to match the pH of the material being tested against a Acids Bases
What Makes and Acid or a Base? So what makes an acid or a base? A chemist named Svante Arrhenius came up with a way to define acids and bases in 1887. He saw that when you put molecules into water, sometimes they break down and release an H+ (hydrogen) ion. At other times, you find the release of an OH- (hydroxide) ion. When a hydrogen ion is released, the solution becomes acidic. When a hydroxide ion is released, the solution becomes basic. Those two special ions determine whether you are
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