Absenteeism, Withdrawal [e.g., alcohol, drug use

Absenteeism, Withdrawal [e.g., alcohol, drug use BUS159 - Group 2 Brianda Acosta, Lupe Banuelos, Jessica Martinez & Valerie Pacheco Absente eism: The Relationship

Between Individual Job Satisfaction and Work-Unit Absenteeism By: Jessica Martinez Key Terms Externally focused satisfaction: an employees relationship or attitude towards his or her job

Internally focused satisfaction: an employees relationship with his or her coworkers or work-unit Mean level of work-unit absenteeism: a contextual cue that determines the level of absence that is allowed in a work-unit Background Individual absenteeism can come from an employees job environment Influenced by social-contextual features of work-units that may

also determine a degree to which job satisfaction levels relate to patterns of absence behavior Work-unit absenteeism is most important and influential socialcontextual cue that influences the satisfaction-absenteeism relationship Studies Participants asked to complete questionnaires with questions related to individual externally and internally focused job satisfaction and individual and work-unit absenteeism Externally focused job satisfaction

assessed by questions that relate to working conditions, organization and management, and career opportunities Internally focused job satisfaction assessed by questions that refer to work-unit colleagues and supervisors Individual and work-unit absenteeism assessed by the number of absences the individual and Study Results High mean levels

of work-unit absenteeism= High internally focused job satisfaction Low mean levels of work-unit absenteeism= High internally focused job

Take Home Message Focus on ensuring appropriate team composition Encourage social relationships between teammates and supervisors Formalized attendance procedures, feedback systems, or unit-level incentives Aversive Conditions

in the Workplace By Brianda Acosta Cost of Absenteeism In the United States absenteeism results in an estimated $225.8 billion per year due to losses in productivity. Key Terms Aversive Conditions: work characteristics perceived by the employee

as noxious or threatening Group Norms: set of shared beliefs and perceptions regarding what is an acceptable rate of, or justification for, employee absences Supervisor Support: the degree to which a supervisor is viewed as both caring and able to provide emotional support Background Studies have found a positive correlation between aversive conditions and high rates of absenteeism. A study composed of a random sample of workers

Workers were asked to fill out questionnaire about peer norms, job hazards, & supervisor support Two key moderators: group norms and supervisor support. RESULTS Take Home Message Encourage a supportive supervisor-employee relationship. Implement a realistic and formal attendance policy.

Pay attention to the role of normative and supervisory factors in the organization. Predictors of Abusive Supervision Supervisor Perceptions of Deep-Level Dissimilarity,

Relationship Conflict, and Subordinate Performance By: Valerie Pacheco Definitions Perceived Deep Level Dissimilarity: refers to the perception that the subordinates values and attitudes differ from the supervisors Moral Exclusion Theory: prediction is that abusive

supervision is positively related to perceived deep-level dissimilarity and supervisor perceptions of relationship conflict with subordinates, and negatively related to supervisor evaluations of subordinate performance Empathy Trait: the dispositional tendency to take the Background How does absenteeism affect a company? Moral exclusion literature identifies three predictors of abusive supervision: Supervisor perceptions of deep-level

dissimilarity Relationship conflict Subordinate Performance Hypothesized Model This model was used during the study to test whether these factors correlated with abusive supervision

Hypotheses 1. Supervisors perceptions of relationship conflict partially mediate the relationship between the supervisors perceived deep-level dissimilarity with a subordinate and abusive supervision directed toward that subordinate 2. A supervisors perceptions of a subordinates performance partially mediate the relationship between the supervisors perceived deep-level dissimilarity with a subordinate and abusive supervision directed toward that subordinate

3. Relationship conflict is a distal partial mediator and supervisor evaluation of subordinate performance is a proximal partial mediator of the relationship between perceived deep-level Study Information and Results Study measures: Perceived Dissimilarity Relationship Conflict Subordinate Performance

Through regression analysis the authors of the article were able to prove: Hypothesis 1 was not supported Abusive supervision Hypothesis 2 and 3 were

supported Control Variables Hypothesis 4 depended Table 2: Results The lower subordinate performance is,

the higher abusive supervision would be Take Home Message Provide employee training on open communication and diversity Provide proper job training to decrease low performance appraisals to prevent other supervisors from seeing

subordinates as being of low utility decreasing the chances of abusive supervision Hiring or promoting supervisors or management that carry an empathy trait Supervisor' s Aggressive Humor And its Impact to

Absenteeism via Addictive Behaviors by: Lupe Banuelos Key Terms Aggressive Humor humor that teases, denigrates, criticizes, maligns, disparages, is disrespectful, is meanspirited, intends to embarrass, or ridicules

individuals or groups of individuals. Strain Employees physical and psychological stress in their work environment Aggressive Humor by Supervisor- Background To determine whether Aggressive Humor by a supervisor can cause strain on the focal employee so great that it may lead or contribute to behaviors such as internet, alcohol or smoking addictions all of

which can result in excessive absenteeism, alienation, poor work performance and workplace safety The detrimental effects of aggressive humor by supervisors when the negative behavior is targeted to a specific (focal) employee rather Three Key Objectives of the Aggressive Humor Study (a) To examine the effects of supervisors aggressive humor on the strain of focal employees -

Hypothesis 1: Supervisors aggressive humor relates positively to focal employee's strain (b) To explore how supervisors aggressive humor with the peers of focal employees influences the strength of the association between the supervisors aggressive humor with the focal employees and the focal employee's strain - Hypothesis 2: Supervisors aggressive humor with the peers of focal employees negatively moderates the relationship between

supervisors use of aggressive humor with the focal employees and the focal employee's strain, such that the positive association becomes stronger when the level of supervisors aggressive humor with peers is low. (c) To test how focal employees translate supervisors aggressive Aggressive Humor Study Results Stress increases when peers are not

Stress targeted decreases when peers are also targeted Aggressive Humor Study Results Humor on focal employees related positively and caused much more strain on the employees than when their peers

received lower levels of aggressive humor from the supervisor Treatment received by the peers of the focal employees influenced their reactions to aggressive humor; Similar treatment lessened or buffered the effect When focal employees experienced the strain, they were more likely to engage in addictive behaviors, like internet addiction, problem drinking and problem smoking Aggressive Humor - Take

Home Message HR must take all employee complaints seriously and intervene Training should be conducted to help managers understand appropriate, positive ways to use humor Implementation of support groups, team building activities, and counseling services should be recommended when Absenteeism Take Home Message Training should be conducted to help managers understand

appropriate, positive ways to use humor and communication Implementation of support groups, team building activities, and counseling services should be recommended when organizations are made aware of individuals suffering from workplace stress Having the company value a culture of teams where employees

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