A Comparative Study on The Effectiveness of Explicit and ...


different contexts (Literacy dictionary, Harris & Hodges, 1995) A sum or stock of words employed by a language, group, individual, or work or in a field of knowledge. (Merriam Webster Dictionary) One of the most significant components of a language. If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh. (Harmer, 1991)

While without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. (Wilkins, 1972) Appropriate and useful target vocabulary in classrooms. Teaching a word takes some time depending on the word, so it is very important to choose high-frequency words; so that the time spent on instructing a word has the maximum possible impact (Nation, 2005). More exposure to receptive skills, more productive students

are. English Education in Turkey State schools: 3 hours of English, compulsory starting from 2nd grade. Private Schools: 11 hours main course, two hours Cambridge preparation and three hours native teacher, which is a total of 16 hours per week Teaching Young Learners

Defined as children between the ages of five and twelve. They acquire language more efficiently and faster at an early age due to the greater flexibility of their brains, relative to older children, adolescents, or adults (Harmer, 2011) Keeping students attention on tasks is important (Cameron, 2005). The methods and content used to teach children are significant.

Vocabulary Teaching Vocabulary teaching is usually integrated into listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Incorporated in two types of instructions: 1.Explicit Vocabulary Teaching 2. Implicit Vocabulary Teaching Explicit Vocabulary Instruction It is a way of instruction which is focused and effective but limited with the number of words and word knowledge

types (Schmitt,2010). Focus on target vocabulary Memorization of new words (word lists, synonyms, antonyms) Traditional method Implicit Vocabulary Instruction It is a vocabulary teaching method in which students are unaware of the objectives and learn incidentally through exposures to rich contexts (Nation, 2000).

No concentration on target vocabulary No isolation of words No memorization Meaningful contexts Rich clues Vocabulary Learning Strategies 1. Guessing strategies: Background knowledge, clues in contexts. 2. Dictionary Strategies: Definitions, synonyms and antonyms. 3. Note-taking strategies: Concentration on the meaning of the words and the usage

of the words. 4. Rehearsal Strategies: Oral and visual repetition is quite important. 5. Encoding Strategies: To encode the words in terms of associations, images, visuals, audios, word structures, contexts and semantic is important. 6. Activation Strategies: Learners memorize vocabulary lists by linking them with pictures, numbers, and words. Previous Research Nash and Snowling (2006)= Both groups had knowledge, whereas contextual group had better knowledge of target vocabulary.

Cohen and Byrnes (2007)= With literature and word learning strategies, they used more target words in written and oral language. Shakouri, et al. (2014)= Both implicit (long term) and explicit (immediate retention) instructions need to be used together in teaching. Related research shows that implicit vocabulary instruction causes unintentional vocabulary learning with long term retention whereas explicit instruction requires

the deliberate instruction of specific words which are chosen from the high frequency words. Additionally, studies emphasize that explicit instruction of vocabulary is necessary at the beginning of the language learning process as young language learners do not know any words at the beginning of the language learning period. However, after the basic words are learnt intentionally, vocabulary learning happens implicitly which covers a bigger percentage of the learnt words.

Research Questions 1. To what extent do the two methods of vocabulary instruction (implicit and explicit) impact the vocabulary development of fifth grade EFL learners? 2. Is there any significant difference between these two instructional methods on the participants vocabulary development? 3. What are the perceptions of the EFL teachers about incorporating these two methods in their classroom practices?

Sources of Data Pre- and post- tests: Revision test at the end of unit, World Quest 2, Oxford Press Lesson plans Reflective journals Research Design In this study, quasi- experimental approach was used as the classes could not be adjusted for this research study. The quantitative data was collected through the pre- and post- tests

while the qualitative data was collected through reflective journals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were compared and contrasted separately, and results were interpreted in relation to one another. Participants Private school in Istanbul, Turkey. 15 female and 10 male students. 10 and 11 years old Turkish students. English level is A2.

Explicit Instruction Teacher: Graduated from American Culture and Literature. She received a teaching certificate and has been teaching English for 15 years at different levels. Implicit Instruction Teacher: Graduated from English Language Teaching Masters Program in Bahcesehir University. She has been a teacher since 2008. Results The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Fifth Grade EFL Learners

There is not a significant difference between both instruction methods according to pre-test and post-test results, and they both help learning new vocabulary. The Difference between Explicit and Implicit Instruction on the Use of Target Vocabulary by Fifth Grade EFL Learners According to the results, students used the target words in a

correct way after each instruction. There was not an important difference between the instruction types. The Perceptions of Teachers about Incorporating Implicit and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction in Fifth Grade Classrooms The overall analysis of the reflective journals showed that explicit vocabulary instruction was perceived boring and ineffective by the students and teacher, whereas implicit vocabulary instruction was taught to be effective and

enjoyable both by the students and teacher. So, as a result of the teacher dairies it can be suggested that implicit vocabulary instruction can be used in fifth grade EFL classrooms. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that even though explicit and implicit instruction do not have a significant impact on fifth grade Turkish EFL learners vocabulary development when compared with each other, teachers

perceived implicit vocabulary instruction to be more effective in terms of student motivation and participation in their classrooms. Recommendations A further study could be conducted with fifth grade EFL learners at state schools and compare the two instructional methods in two different school contexts. Secondly, this study can be applied to students at different proficiency levels and grades to make a cross comparison between

grades and levels. It is also recommended that this study be replicated with different variables such as learning abilities, gender or learning environment. It is recommended that one specific group could be taught both with explicit and implicit instructions to analyze which instruction method is more effective on one specific group. A combination of games, stories, songs, videos and other types of entertaining instruments in this study. The focus can be on just one for the next time.

Vocabulary Activities Taboo: Students tell the word written on board to their team member who sits in a chair. Spider game: Teacher writes a letter in a circle and students write 8 words starting with that letter. This game is played in 2 groups. Pictionary: Teacher shows a word to the student and she draws a picture about it on board. Group members try to guess what it is. BINGO: It can be played with any sets of vocabulary.

Vocabulary activities Scrambled letters: Teacher writes letters in a mixed way on board and students try to write a word with these letters. Categories: Each group tells a letter and teacher assigns some categories such as colors, furniture, sports, animals. The group which completes writing a word for each category with all letters wins. Memory game: Prepare some index cards. Ask students to find the antonyms, synonyms, definition of the target vocabulary.

Matching: Matching pictures and words. Thank you! Sengul Er Dogan ESL Teacher [email protected]

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