6.E.2 Notes

Earths Layers 6.E.2 Notes Anatomy of Earth Crust Mantle Outer Inner Core Core Crust

Mostly made up of rocks and minerals covered by water, sand, soil, and ice This layer is solid Thinnest layer; Makes up less than 1% of the earths mass Crust 3-25 miles thick

It is the least dense layer Temperature is the same as the air because it meets with our atmosphere Crust The crust consists of continental plates and oceanic plates When

continental crust (6 to 47 miles thick) meets oceanic crust (4 miles thick) it forms a subduction zone (when two plate tectonics collide) Questions What is the density of the crust? It

is the least dense layer of the earth, makes up less than 1% of Earths mass What does it mean when we say less dense or more dense? Density is mass/ volume. When something is less dense it tends to float, whereas more dense objects tend to sink

How thick is the crust? It is the thinnest layer of the earth, 3-25 miles thick Is the crust solid, liquid, or gas? Solid

What is the crust made of? Rocks What The and minerals is the crusts temperature? same temperature as the atmosphere

Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Lithosphere/ Asthenosphere Lithosphere Is the crust and uppermost part of the mantle Forms a rigid shell on the outside of Earth. The rocks in the lithosphere are strong and do not bend easily

It is broken into large pieces called tectonic plates Asthenosphere Is the partially melted portion of the mantle below the lithosphere It is hotter than the lithosphere and can bend more easily. The ability of the asthenosphere to bend is related to tectonic plate

movement. Naming tectonic plates Tectonic plates are named Tectonic plates are based on its ability to move called: in relation to another plate. Divergent: two plates There are over 30 tectonic move away from each plates but scientist have other identified 15 large plates.

Convergent: two plates move toward each other We live on the North Transform: two plates American plate which is slide past each other. made up of: Oceanic Crust Continental Crust Convergent Boundaries: No subduction

Subduction Zone When tectonic plates move under another plate The plates become crumpled and deformed. The plates do not crumple or Due to neither plate deform as they push towards subducting, blocks of crust each other. As the mantle near slide upwards creating tall the subducted plate melts,

mountains. magma rises and forms a volcanic arc on the plate that does not subduct. Convergent Subduction Zone Oceanic and Continental Plates When an oceanic plate encounters

a continental plate, the oceanic plate plunges beneath the other plate. Oceanic Plate Tectonics Continental Tectonic Plates

No Subduction Zone The effects of subduction zones Mountain ranges can be created by subduction zones. Subduction zones are at high risk for earthquakes. Transform Boundaries: Creates Earthquakes

Divergent Boundaries: Forms valleys What causes tectonic plates to mov e? They move because of convection, which happens in the Earths asthenosphere. Convection in the mantle can drag plates over Earths surface. The rocks in the mantle are

not hot enough to bend easily but they can flow in away similar to fluids. Mantle Layer between crust and core Thickest 1800 layer of the earth

miles thick Made up of dense, hot molten rock (mainly iron and magnesium) Between A convection current takes place in the mantle

Causes It 1112-2192 degrees F pieces of the crust to move is mostly solid Mantle The mantle is split into upper

mantle and lower mantle The lithosphere is made up of the upper mantle and the crust The asthenosphere is below the lithosphere

Mantle The lithosphere contains ridged rocks The asthenosphere contains rocks that can flow like a liquid

In the mantle we have two layers of solid rock with heated flowing rock between them Lets Review The Earths crust is divided into 12 major

tectonic plates These plates sit on the dense, hot, layer of the earth known as the lithosphere Lithosphere = the crust and upper portion of the mantle The Earths plates move about 2 inches per year (5 centimeters) Convective currents within the mantle cause the plates to move As they move, the plates: Press against one another (convergent boundary)

Pull apart from one another (divergent boundary) Scrape against one another (transform boundary) Plate boundaries What is convection? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEDUtS0IM ws Convection currents in the earth http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkKlGXG4lG8

Alfred Wegener was a meteorologist that believed that at one period of time the continents were all connected. People didnt believe him because he didnt have enough evidence to support his theory of the continents were moving because people couldnt feel it.

He believed over time the continents split into separate pieces and shifted around the world. His theory was called the Continental Drift .

He wasnt the first to announce this theory; however, he was the first to have evidence: Plants and animals Continen tal Drift Pangea

Effects of Tectonic Plate Boundaries Major geological events occur at these plate boundaries: Earthquakes Volcanic Eruptions Mountain Building New mountain ranges are being formed where: two continental plates press against one another An oceanic plate and a continental plate press against one another

Thin oceanic plates spread outward at areas known as mid-ocean rift zones. Scientists who study how wave energy travels through the different layers of the Earth are called Seismologists. Remember. Waves have characteristics such as: the number of waves that pass a given point in 1 second Frequency (speed of the wave) the height from the rest position to the bottom

of the trough or from the rest position to the top of the crest Amplitude Distance from crest to crest or trough to trough Wavelength Transverse waves.. Earthquake: Seismic WavesWrite in notebook. During an earthquake, energy is released into the Earth as: -Primary waves (compression waves) -Secondary waves (shear waves)

-Surface waves Write in notebook Primary (P) waves travel through both solid rock (granite mountains) and liquid regions (volcanic magma or water of the oceans) on the Earth

These waves are like sound waves (compression waves) Travel the fastest Write in notebook

Secondary (S) waves only travel through rock Move twice as slow as P waves Moves at right angles to the

direction of travel (transverse waves) Write in notebook Surface wave Motion is felt along the ground and Earths surface. Appear like waves or ripples of water that travel across a lake Types of earthquake waves Types Of Earthquake Waves

Questions What are two parts of the mantle? Upper mantle and lower mantle What is the lithosphere?

Rocky outer parts of the planet. Makes up the upper mantle and the crust How thick is the mantle? It is the thickest layer of the earth, 1800 miles thick

Is the crust solid, liquid, or gas? Mostly solid What is the asthenosphere made of?

Rocks that can flow like a liquid What is the crusts temperature? 1112-2192 degrees F Outer Core Made

up of liquid iron and nickel, or molten metal 7232 degrees F 1400 miles thick Causes It

pieces of the crust to move is liquid More Less dense than crust and mantle dense than inner core Inner Core Made

up of solid iron and nickel Densest layer 9032 degrees F, just as hot as the sun! Its

not liquid. The pressure causes the iron and nickel to solidify Inner Core The pressure comes from the weight of the entire world Where This

the magnetic field lies protects us from deadly solar winds from the sun Inner Core Questions Which part of the core is solid and which part is liquid?

Outer core is liquid, inner core is solid What are the inner core and outer core made of? Nickel and iron

What is the outer cores temperature? 7232 degrees F What is the inner cores temperature?

9032 degrees F

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