Chapter 2 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common structural features We shall survey the nature of the compounds in a tour of the families in this course This chapter deals with alkanes, compounds that contain only carbons and hydrogens, all connected exclusively by single bonds 3.1 Functional Groups Functional group - collection of atoms at a site
within a molecule with a common bonding pattern The group reacts in a typical way, generally independent of the rest of the molecule For example, the double bonds in simple and complex alkenes react with bromine in the same way (See Figure 3.1) Survey of Functional Groups Table 3.1 lists a wide variety of functional groups that you should recognize As you learn about them in each chapter it will be easier to recognize them The functional groups affect the reactions, structure, and
physical properties of every compound in which they occur Types of Functional Groups: Multiple CarbonCarbon Bonds Alkenes have a C-C double bond Alkynes have a C-C triple bond Arenes have special bonds that are represented as
alternating single and double C-C bonds in a sixmembered ring Functional Groups with Carbon Singly Bonded to an Electronegative Atom
Alkyl halide: C bonded to halogen (C-X) Alcohol: C bonded O of a hydroxyl group (COH) Ether: Two Cs bonded to the same O (COC) Amine: C bonded to N (CN) Thiol: C bonded to SH group (CSH) Sulfide: Two Cs bonded to same S (CSC) Bonds are polar, with partial positive charge on C (+) ) and partial negative charge () on electronegative atom Groups with a CarbonOxygen Double Bond (Carbonyl Groups)
Aldehyde: one hydrogen bonded to C=O Ketone: two Cs bonded to the C=O Carboxylic acid: OH bonded to the C=O Ester: C-O bonded to the C=O Amide: C-N bonded to the C=O
Acid chloride: Cl bonded to the C=O Carbonyl C has partial positive charge (+) ) Carbonyl O has partial negative charge (-). 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers Alkanes: Compounds with C-C single bonds and C-H bonds only (no functional groups) Connecting carbons can lead to large or small molecules The formula for an alkane with no rings in it must be CnH2n+) 2 where the number of Cs is n Alkanes are saturated with hydrogen (no more can be added They are also called aliphatic compounds
Different Ways to Write Butane Alkane Isomers CH4 = methane, C2H6 = ethane, C3H8= propane The molecular formula of an alkane with more than three carbons can give more than one structural isomer C4H10 C5H12 Constitutional Isomers Isomers that differ in how their atoms are arranged in chains
are called constitutional isomers Compounds other than alkanes can be constitutional isomers of one another They must have the same molecular formula to be isomers Names of Small Hydrocarbons No. of Carbons Formula Name (CnH2n+2) 1
Methane CH4 2 Ethane C2H6 3
Propane C3H8 4 Butane C4H10 5 Pentane
C5H12 6 Hexane C6H14 7 Heptane
C7H16 8 Octane C8H18 9 Nonane C9H20
10 Decane C10H22 Names of Larger Hydrocarbons No. of Carbons Formula Name (CnH2n+2)
C19H40 20 Isocane C20H42 3.3 Alkyl Groups Alkyl group remove one H from an alkane (a part of a structure) General abbreviation R (for Radical, an incomplete
species or the rest of the molecule) Name: replace -ane ending of alkane with -yl ending CH3 is methyl (from methane) CH2CH3 is ethyl from ethane See Table 3.4 for a list Types of Alkyl groups Classified by the connection site (See Figure 3.3) a carbon at the end of a chain (primary alkyl group) a carbon in the middle of a chain (secondary alkyl group) a carbon with three carbons attached to it (tertiary alkyl group)
3.4 Naming Alkanes Compounds are given systematic names by a process that uses Prefix-Parent-Suffix Follows specific rules Named as longest possible chain Carbons in that chain are numbered in sequence substituents are numbered at their point of attachment Compound name is one word (German style) Complex substituents are named as compounds would be See specific examples in text 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
Called paraffins (low affinity compounds) because they do not react as most chemicals They will burn in a flame, producing carbon dioxide, water, and heat They react with Cl2 in the presence of light to replace Hs with Cls (not controlled) Physical Properties Boiling points and melting points increase as size of alkane increases Forces between molecules (temporary dipoles, dispersion) are weak 3.6 Cycloalkanes
Cycloalkanes are alkanes that have carbon atoms that form a ring (called alicyclic compounds) Simple cycloalkanes rings of CH2 units, (CH2)n, or CnH2n Structure is shown as a regular polygon with the number of vertices equal to the number of Cs (a projection of the actual structure) cyclobutane cyclopropane cyclopentane
cyclohexane Complex Cycloalkanes Naturally occurring materials contain cycloalkane structures Examples: chrysanthemic acid (cyclopropane), prostaglandins (cyclopentane), steroids (cyclohexanes and cyclopentane) Properties of Cycloalkanes Melting points are affected by the shapes and the way that crystals pack so they do not change uniformly 3.7 Naming Cycloalkanes
Count the number of carbon atoms in the ring and the number in the largest substituent chain. If the number of carbon atoms in the ring is equal to or greater than the number in the substituent, the compound is named as an alkyl-substituted cycloalkane For an alkyl- or halo-substituted cycloalkane, start at a point of attachment as C1 and number the substituents on the ring so that the second substituent has as low a number as possible. Number the substituents and write the name See text for more details and examples 3.8 Cis-Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
Rotation about C-C bonds in cycloalkanes is limited by the ring structure Rings have two faces and substituents are labeled as to their relative facial positions There are two different 1,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane isomers, one with the two methyls on the same side (cis) of the ring and one with the methyls on opposite sides (trans) Stereoisomers Compounds with atoms connected in the same order but which differ in three-dimensional orientation, are stereoisomers The terms cis and trans should be used to specify stereoisomeric ring structures
Recall that constitutional isomers have atoms connected in different order
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