1. dia - health workforce

Work Package 4 Rome workshop SUMMARYOF WP4 ACTIVITY 2 WORK, LINK TO WP5 AND WP6 WORK, OVERVIEW OF D042 EDIT EKE ESZTER KOVCS EDMOND GIRASEK ZOLTAN ASZALOS ZOLTAN CSERHATI RKA KOVCS ANDRS WBER Health Services Management Training Centre Semmelweis University _____________________________ 3rd December 2014 Mobility Data Mapping Activity 2 in WP4 WORK Studies/ Projects available Workshop (s) - basis for

recommendations Added value of inserting a minimum set of mobility indicators into international data collection DG MARKT database ECHI mobility indicator WP4 Questionnaire Survey Interviews also including Knowledge Brokers Network, DG Markt, experts, other stakeholders Specific additional focus Discussion on the applicability of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel including the mapping of best practices.

2 LINKS W P5 WP5 HWF g in Plann ap g data sis analy y 3) it (Activ WP6 WP7 Mobility data mapping + WHO Code Terminology

Mapping (Activity 1) 3 D042 Report on mobility data in the EU The report will contain: An overview of the added value of inserting a minimum set of mobility indicators into international data collection. Recommendations to support improvements in mobility data collection how to collect better quality data, how to collect them better. 4 D042 Planned Structure CHAPTERS Executive Summary 1. Introduction Joint Action overall context, WP4 glossary 2. Different HWF mobility related challenge areas to address (EU) 3. Literature study overview demonstrating the state of our knowledge on EU mobility terminology, data and claiming for a data approach 4. Discussion on the mobility indicators from literature, WP4 work & building on D051, D061, D052 (+) 5. Analysis of the current data collected on mobility in different JA countries and among partners,

identification of problems and GAPS regarding mobility data and mobility data management 6. Discussion on the Gap Analysis 7. Recommendations at national and EU level with assessment of feasibility aspects 8. Conclusion with some final statement Annexes a- Some country examples of data and flows, based on literature, survey and workshops b- Some country examples of processes, based on WP5-D052 material & other WPs (WP6) & WP4 works (Any potential best practices) c- Literature references d- WP4 QS Survey methodology & output e- WP4 Workshops methodology & outputs. 5 WP4 WORKSHOPS HWF MOBILITY (WHO Code component WSs are not included) Budapest 2013 June Utrecht 2014 March Rome 2014 December

Partners presentation according to pedefined questions Group work according to different levels (top-makro-mikro) and stakeholders (2 in each) Group work according to three main defined HWF mobility challenge area and analytical aspects, focusing on recommendations 6 Main conclusions 1

Identification and clarification of the objective(s) of HWF mobility data collection (why) are critical, and influence the content of the data (what) and the way/method (how) of data collection.These objectives can differ at each level (at according to stakeholders). There are many types of HWF mobility, far beyond the question of the indicators: foreign-born, foreign-trained, foreign-nationality. For instance, permanent/temporary, commuting, for training, dual/ multiple employment type, etc.That needs further exploration and evaluation, the data/indicators that could be used to monitor and follow must be identified and developed accordingly. At international and EU level, harmonisation of definitions and approaches on HWF mobility types, definitions and indicators is needed. ECHI 65 indicator (Mobility of professionals) is to be developed further. Harmonisation and consistency with other European and EU level definitions and indicators that relate to workforce mobility and migration is also needed.

7 Main conclusions 2 Currently, besides inflow data that are followed in many countries, albeit by different data and indicators, no real HWF mobility data are available at country, regional and EU level. Proximal data on outflow can be gained in some countries at the best. Continuous, mutual cooperation and coordination of all different stakeholders is needed and crucial both at national and international level. Exploration to support that, and to ensure access to publicly available individual data to follow HWF mobility and activity is needed at EU level. Data and additional information that are needed to be able to evaluate HWF mobility data and indicators in a comprehensive and proper way must be defined and explored further. For example the availability of practising HWF data, the role (and relating data) on dual/ multiple employment, the use/role of FTE, labour market contexts, etc.

As a long-term plan, with the involvement of national authorities,an EU level registry or Data Warehouse on various information on mobile HWF should be considered. 8 WHO-OECD Minimum Mobility Data Set 9 Findings of WP4 Questionnaire Survey In total 14 country responses were received: Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and the UK; plus brief summary of Bulgaria, Lack or limited information in four countries: Ireland, UK, Greece, and Bulgaria The objective was to explore, reveal, and clarify the details of health professional mobility, mobility data mapping. WP4 also aimed to map views on the comparability of mobility data and gather information of the use of the currently available European Union databases, processes and recommendations. WP4 collected information on the relevance of HWF mobility; the availability, interpretation and use of mobility data, and the objectives of mobility data

collection in different countries. 10 Mobility in respect of number, composition and sustainability of HWF In total the ranking of top three professions in the relevance of mobility flows 10 point Likerttype scale: the mean values for inflow were 2.5, for dentists 2.3, for MDs and 2.0 for nurses the mean values for outflow resulted in 2.3 for MDs, 2.0 for nurses and 1.8 for dentists 11

Indicators and use of mobility data Indicators in HWF mobility Main problems are: no official and standardized method for data collection, no systematic data collection on HWF mobility, no harmonization at EU level 9 8 7 6 5 9 9 Yes No 4 6

3 5 2 2 1 2 Purposes for using (!) HWF mobility data 0 FT FB FN Most commonly used: Foreign-trained (FT) Foreign-national (FN)

9 8 7 6 5 9 4 Yes No 7 6 3 5 2 3 1

0 Monitoring Planning 12 Forecasting 6 Interpretation Indicator for outflow: number of request for certificate of conformity - letter of good standing, which means Intention to leave data only, considering first applicants only Indicator for inflow: recognition of professional qualifications obtained abroad (first/last qualification) 13 The role of HWF mobility in HWFP - Qualitative answers of the 2.C.4. How could EU level actions relating to mobility support your HWF monitoring, planning and forecasting, WP4 QS

or any other HWF relating (please, define) processes the best in the future? The OECD-Eurostat-WHO Joint Questionnaire could be a good tool Obligatory feedback on HWF inflow from target countries to source countries between responsible authorities Through technical support from experts, workshops etc. No single national planning authority - how EU level actions could support not easy to assess. EU would have to either be in contact with a variety of actors or find a way to communicate through a focal point. Information sharing might be a useful action It is necessary to collect international standardized data from both source country, and target country. For planning and for policymaking it would be very useful to be able to evaluate the incentives of movement (e.g. wages, 14 education, facilities) 2.C.5. What recommendations do you have regarding the possible use/inclusion of HWF mobility information into the JQ? Standardisation of all indicators - international comparability, analysis

and data sharing Further explore ways to integrate both professional mobility and student mobility (basic diploma + specialties) into the JQ Assess comparability of definitions Discuss how to deal with limited data availability for some professions. Define the aims of said inclusion: for monitoring? Are member states expected to act on the information? And if so, what is the political goal? These questions might need to be discussed at national level first. Compulsory in order to participate in the various Structural Funds

15 Summary - EU level support 1 well-defined data-collection (OECD-Eurostat-WHO Joint Questionnaire could be a good tool), cooperation between those who collect and process the data Inclusion of mobility data into JQ could be beneficial for every country collecting international standardized data for monitoring the HWF mobility flows at international level - facilitate international comparability obligatory feedback on HWF inflow from target countries to source countries between responsible authorities could be useful better exchange of information, data sharing

view on situation in EU and will help planning in every country good and feasible practices 16 Summary - EU level support 2 technical support from experts, European representatives of professional associations, workshops increased coordination to monitor mobility data and establish a minimum set of data guidelines and recommendations e.g. how to deal with limited data availability assess comparability of definitions identify and enforce commonly agreed and accepted mobility indicators - a priority order of the three inflow indicators has to be agreed and accepted by consensus between countries, how to define/measure outflow international triangulation of data on mobility 17 WP5 HWF mobility-related information Objectives for HWF mobility follow-up/Use of HWF mobility information

Training capacity and targeting foreign students in the enhanced global competition, immigration in order to respond to severe professional shortages (international mobility) should be considered in HWFP Key planning indicators and set of data (MDS) includes migration/mobility data Migration inflow: forecast of number of licensed and recognized professionals (headcount) that may enter the country calculated using the average of the last years. Characterized by profession, age, headcount Migration outflow: forecast of number of practising professionals (headcount and FTE) that may leave the country calculated using the average of the last years. Characterized by profession, age, headcount Coverage of needs by foreign professionals today and in the future: number of professionals with foreign first qualification Current/Future stock of professionals with foreign qualification current country of activity divided by total number of professionals 18 WP5 HWF HWF mobility-related information 2. Country level mobility information Inflow and outflow is often understood as the annual total entrance and exit of HPs including immigration (with entrants from training) and emigration (with exit by retirement) Training capacity should play a significant role mobility among students Immigration - increase of foreign HPs is considered more times than emigration (WP5 country examples consist mostly of recipient countries!)

Immigration rate per profession, number of rejected certificates might be useful in HWFP Challenges were indicated regarding the exact measurement of in- and outflow mobility Example: Importance of HWF mobility data and evidence-based policy actions -> Shortages of professionals were in part solved in Spain through professionals inflows mainly from Latin America and Europe in 2003-2009 Context Free movement of workers within the EU requires consideration in HWFP Monitoring overall coverage of HWF and geographical variances is crucial Migration has different importance according to the weight that this phenomenon has each country, has influence to quality healthcare delivery The impact of migration on forecasting model will probably grow in the future with more integration within the EU Migration is a right for the EU citizens but should not be used systematically as a source to cover the populations need 19 WP6 HWF mobility-related information Objectives for HWF mobility follow-up/Use of HWF mobility information Inflows and outflows are key factors becoming trends and potentially key drivers as features of health systems and the workforce. They can play a significant role in the supply of health services and workforce (training pathways, attrition, leavers, joiners and registration points must be taken into account). The stock and flow approach incorporating mobility takes into consideration the production / training of health workforces for health

systems. A range of qualitative methods can be used to collect information and understand further mobility. WP6 user guidelines describes: expert/stakeholder identification, literature reviews, interviews, surveys, scenarios and Delphi exercises all of which can used to understand mobility. 20 WP6 HWF mobility-related information Country level mobility information Mobility information/ data as part of understanding and then calculating surplus and shortages (Belgium concerning future changes to flows). The perceived or understood sentiment of mobility/migration intentions in the workforce (surveys such as Health professional mobility in a changing Europe, Hungary, UK, Bulgaria etc.). Generating scenarios or a range of projections to understand plausible futures and possibilities so as to monitor the development of the available supply in a set time horizon (UK and the Netherlands). Use of qualitative methods in scenario / policy analysis / understanding uncertainty considering mobility trends without precise quantitative data or use of elicitation methods. Example: Spain - migration, territorial distribution, recirculation, abandonment of specialty places are taken into account. 21

WP6 HWF mobility-related information Context of mobility and skills It is important to understand the context of a health system before making comparisons with others. Free movement of workforce and patients raises questions on the international, national and intra-EU level of skills in the health workforce. Workforce planning should include qualitative and quantitative understanding of skills which can be modelled to inform decision making as well as be clear about uncertainty. The need for a stronger evidence base of skills related studies is apparent if we are know what works and how to harness innovations in practice, technology, patient empowerment, new roles, new models of

care etc. 22 THANK YOU 23

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